Current Issue (Vol 5, July-August 2018 Issue)
 
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EDITORIAL
Evolution of classification systems of odontogenic tumors - An enigma
S. Ratheesh Kumar Nandan
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Abstract

Odontogenic tumors are the diverse group comprising benign and malignant neoplasms to hamartomatous lesions. There has been a constant change in the classification systems ever since Broca’s classified in the year 1867. Later, the WHO classified these odontogenic tumors in the year 1971. In these classification systems, there were omissions and updating of lesions by the WHO.

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparative analysis of fatigue resistance, fracture strength, and fracture patterns in ceramic crowns with zirconia and direct metal laser-sintered cores - An in vitro study
P. S. Manoharan, N. Vivek Rajasimhan, David Livingstone, N. Karthi Arivarasan
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Abstract

Purpose: Core materials in metal-ceramic crowns have metal, and all-ceramic crowns may have a zirconia substructure. These core materials are used to reinforce the strength of the prosthesis. The various metal substructures were compared to study the fracture strength and bond failure between the core structure and the layered ceramic. Digital metal laser-sintered (DMLS) substructures can be fabricated to thinner sections of up to 0.3mm. In conditions where there is a need for lesser reduction of tooth structure, the DMLS structures can be a viable alternative to zirconia substructures. The conducted study was intended to evaluate the fracture strength in ceramic crowns with DMLS and zirconia cores.

Materials and Methods: A prepared tooth with standardized dimensions was generated using computer-aided design software and milled in metal. Impression of die was made, and 40 epoxy resin dies were prepared. Then, 20 DMLS substructures (Group I) and 20 Zirconia substructures (Group II) were made following in which ceramic veneering was done. Group I is divided into Group I(A) (10 crowns for the load to fracture) and Group I(B) (10 crowns for fatigue test). Group II is divided into Group II(A) (10 crowns for the load to fracture) and Group II(B) (10 crowns for fatigue test). All crowns were cemented to their respective dies using Type I glass ionomer luting cement. All crowns were subjected to thermocycling (5000 cycles) and Group I(A) & Group II(A) crowns were tested for load to fracture , and observational analysis of fracture pattern was carried out. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Mean and standard deviation were estimated from the samples of each test group. Descriptive statistics was used to find the mean and standard deviation variables. Levene’s test was used to test the equality of variances for independent “t” test.

Results and Conclusion: The amount of load to fracture for Group I(A) was high with 3163.96 ± 525.27 and that for Group II(A) was 2077.1 ± 388.97. The difference between the mean was found statistically significant (P=0.005). Both DMLS crowns group I(B) and Zirconia crowns group II(B) showed good fatigue resistance on observational examination and there is no evidence of no cracks or fracture at the end of fatigue test. Hence, crowns from both groups expected to resist crack propagation when used clinically. Hence, it may be concluded that mean load to fracture between Groups I(A) and Group II(A) significantly differs.

Keywords: Digital metal laser sintered, fatigue, fracture, substructure, zirconia

How to cite this article: Manoharan PS, Rajasimhan NV, Livingstone D, Arivarasan NK. Comparative analysis of fatigue resistance, fracture strength, and fracture patterns in ceramic crowns with zirconia and direct metal laser-sintered cores - An in vitro study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 92-98

Received: 10 May 2018;

Accepted: 16 June 2018

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Evaluation of anticancer activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (i.e., tea tree oil) on colon cancer cell line (HT29) - An in vitro study
Sujata M. Byahatti, Chetana Bogar, Kishore Bhat, Girish Dandagi
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Abstract

Introduction and Aim: Exploring naturally available plants as a source of new therapeutic agents, in treating the different types of cancer is currently gaining a lot of importance. One such naturally available plant extract derived from Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia (i.e., tea tree oil [TTO]) which belongs to the family of essential oils is a very good antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory agent. However, currently, a lot of importance is given for its anticancer effect. Hence, our aim is to evaluate anticancer activity of M. alternifolia on colon cancer cell line (HT29).

Materials and Methods: Before, we started our study ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional review board. The cytotoxicity checked for colon cancer (HT29) cell line with positive control being Cisplatin by an MTT assay. MTT is an in vitro method of analysis of cytotoxicity of TTO on colon cancer cell line.TTO was obtained from crystal aromatics, New Delhi, imported from Australia with refractive index of 1.475. These cell lines which were used in our study were procured from NCCS Pune, India. (1) MTT solution preparation (stock solution): 5 mg in 1 mL of PBS. (2) Cell culture: During culture, the cell lines were maintained in 96 wells microtiter plate which contains MEM media supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS), containing 5% of mixture of gentamicin (10 ug), penicillin (100 units/mL), and streptomycin (100 μg/mL) in the presence of 5% CO2 at 37°C for 48–72 h. (3) Cytotoxicity assay: Wherein, there is an in vitro growth inhibition effect of test compound which was assessed by calorimetric or spectrophotometric method where the yellow-colored MTT converted into purple-colored Formazan crystals by mitochondria in the living cells.

Results: Hence, in the results of the current study, mean of five readings was represented. The IC50 value of TTO for colon cancer cell line after 24 h was 12.5 μ g/mL. Spearman’s rho’s correlation showed P < 0.060 indicating that there were no significant results obtained when TTO was treated with HT29 colon cancer cell line.

Conclusion: TTO has a promising anticancer property against colon cancer cell line (HT29) with its IC50 value of 12.5 μ g/mL. Hence, this TTO with its greater efficacy related to its anticancer activity can be brought to the level of clinical trials in the coming future.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, HT29, MTT assay, tea tree oil

How to cite this article: Byahatti SM, Bogar C, Bhat K, Dandagi G. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (i.e. tea tree oil) on colon cancer cell line (HT29) - An in vitro study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018;5:99-103

Received: 20 May 2018;

Accepted: 26 June 2018

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and red complex bacteria from supragingival and subgingival plaque samples of healthy individuals before orthodontic treatment - A clinical and microbiological correlation
Pooja Desai, Amruta Hooli, Manojar Kugaji, Vijayalakshmi Kotrashetti, Kishore Bhat, Vikram Pai
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Abstract

Background: Oral microbiota has an ecologically diverse microbial population. A disruption in the harmonious relationship between host and flora due to the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance might result in the initiation of periodontal diseases. The red complex organisms and Aa are known periodontal pathogens. Hence, investigating the potential for periodontal disease in patients before initiating orthodontic treatment would be beneficial and will help assess measures to be taken to maintain oral hygiene.

Materials and Methods: A total of 75 periodontally healthy individuals (42 males and 33 females) in the age group of 15–25 years with an indication for orthodontic treatment were included. The gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were assessed for every patient. Supra- and Subgingival plaque samples were collected using sterile Gracey curettes. DNA extraction was done using modified proteinase K method. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect selected microorganisms. Species-specific primers targeting 16SrRNA gene were used. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test for the presence of a combination of microorganisms and were correlated to clinical parameters.

Results: The occurrence of a combination of microorganisms was significantly higher in subgingival plaque samples (P < 0.05) and was significantly correlated to the GI and PI (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The rate of the occurrence of microorganisms was higher in subgingival plaque samples as compared to supragingival plaque. The combination of the occurrence of microorganisms in subgingival plaque samples was significantly correlated to clinical parameters such as GI and PI.

Keywords: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, oral microbes, orthodontic treatment, red complex bacteria, subgingival plague, supragingival plaque

How to cite this article: Desai P, Hooli A, Kugaji M, Kotrashetti V, Bhat K, Pai V. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and red complex bacteria from supragingival and subgingival plaque samples of healthy individuals before orthodontic treatment - A clinical and microbiological correlation. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018;5:104-110

Received: 21 May 2018;

Accepted: 27 June 2018

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Efficacy of spirulina with isometric exercises in the management of oral submucous fibrosis
Varsha Kanjani, Rajeshwari G. Annigeri, Manjunath M. Revanappa
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Abstract

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory, potentially malignant oral disorder. Spirulina with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating properties has shown promising results in the management of OSMF. Few studies involving isometric exercises are stated in literature as physiotherapy modalities for OSMF.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina with isometric exercises in the management of OSMF.

Materials and Methods: A study consisted of 15 clinically diagnosed OSMF patients. All patients were given spirulina 500 mg twice a day for 3 months. Patients were instructed to perform isometric mouth exercises for 20 min, twice daily. Patients were evaluated every 15 days for the assessment of clinical parameters. Results were analyzed with SPSS software.

Results: There was a significant reduction in burning sensation (59%) and increment of 3.2 mm in mouth opening with P = 0.001. The present study also showed significant improvement in cheek flexibility and tongue protrusion (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Spirulina along with isometric exercises was well tolerated by patients. All the clinical parameters (burning sensation, mouth opening, tongue protrusion, and cheek flexibility) showed a statistically significant improvement. Thus, the present combined modality was non-invasive, cost-effective, and beneficial in the management of OSMF.

Keywords: Isometric exercises, oral submucous fibrosis, physiotherapy, spirulina

How to cite this article: Kanjani V, Annigeri RG, Revanappa MM. Efficacy of spirulina with isometric exercises in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 111-114

Received 14 July 2018;

Accepted 11 August 2018

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Occlusal groove patterns and cusp number in permanent mandibular first and second molar among Indian population - A pilot study
Sindhu Nair, Vijayalakshmi S. Kotrashetti, Ramakant Nayak, Jagadish Hosmani
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Abstract

Background: The study of the origin and variations of the human dentition is called dental anthropology. It can be used as an effective tool to identify geographic or racial affinities. Dental anthropology includes metric and non-metric analysis. Non-metric analysis includes studying the morphology of teeth. Morphological analyses on extra cusp, shoveling of incisor, and Carabelli’s trait have been studied extensively in Indian population, but cusp number variation and variation in groove morphology are lacking. Thus, the aim is to determine the frequency of occlusal groove pattern and cusp number in permanent mandibular first and second molar among Indian population.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 subjects of Indian origin were considered (75 males and 75 females) in the age group of 18–25 years. Exclusion criteria included caries, restorations, and attrition of teeth. After obtaining consent, impression was obtained using alginate impression material and cast made using dental stone. Mandibular first and second molar was analyzed for occlusal groove pattern and cusp number based on Arizona State University - Dentoanthropological System of State University of Arizona criteria.

Results: The most frequent pattern in 36 and 46 was 5Y followed by 4+ and 6X. In 37 and 47, 4+ pattern was more frequent followed by 4X. Significant difference was observed in distribution of patterns between 36 and 37 and 46 and 47, respectively (P < 0.01) and between males and females significant difference was observed with respect to 37 and 47.

Conclusion: The mandibular first molar showed 5Y pattern more frequently indicating a more conservative trend while the second molar showed 4+ pattern depicting a high evolutionary trend. There was a significant difference in the distribution of patterns between males and females with respect to the second molar.

Keywords: Forensic odontology, groove, indian population, mandibular molars, occlusal cusp

How to cite this article: Nair S, Kotrashetti VS, Nayak R, Hosmani J. Occlusal groove patterns and cusp number in permanent mandibular first and second molar among Indian population - A pilot study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 115-118

Received: 02 May 2018;

Accepted: 22 June 2018

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Determination of prevalence of genus Prevotella from the subgingival plaque samples of chronic periodontitis and in healthy individual through polymerase chain reaction
Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Kishore Bhat, Smita Pattanshetty, Manohar Kugaji, Amruta Hooli
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Abstract

Background: Members of genus Prevotella are Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli mainly residing in the oral cavity. These are pigmented and non-pigmented organisms. Pigmented organisms can be easily identified and isolated through culture, whereas non-pigmented ones are difficult to identify through culture due to their fastidious nature. Studies have been carried out identifying different phylotypes of Prevotella, but studies are lacking where only prevalence of genus Prevotella is studied. Hence, the present study is aimed to determine the prevalence of genus Prevotella from the subgingival plaque samples of chronic periodontitis and in healthy individual through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals (100 chronic periodontitis and 100 healthy individuals) were considered for the study. Detailed demographic data were obtained from both the groups once they met all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For chronic periodontitis individuals, detailed clinical examination was done and periodontal index was noted. The subgingival plaque was collected from the individuals and transferred into reduced transport media and sent to a laboratory for DNA extraction. Followed by DNA extraction PCR analysis was carried out for genus Prevotella with conserved region of 16s rDNA as the target.

Result: Overall 94.5% of cases were positive for genus Prevotella. In chronic periodontitis, positivity was marginally high with 96% when compared to healthy individuals which were 93%. When grades of periodontitis were compared, severe periodontitis showed more number of positive cases. However, the difference was statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: This is the preliminary study which gives an insight for the prevalence of genus Prevotella in oral cavity. Higher prevalence was observed in chronic periodontitis individuals when compared to healthy, thus suggesting its role in causing periodontitis. However, further study has to be carried out to identify different species of Prevotella and their role in healthy individuals and chronic periodontitis.

Keywords: Anaerobic bacteria, chronic periodontitis, oral microorganisms, polymerase chain reaction, Prevotella

How to cite this article: Kotrashetti VS, Bhat K, Pattanshetty S, Kugaji M, Hooli A. Determination of prevalence of genus Prevotella from the subgingival plaque samples of chronic periodontitis and in healthy individual through polymerase chain reaction. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 119-123

Received: 15 July 2018;

Accepted: 22 August 2018

 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Matrix metalloproteinases in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A review
J. K. Savita, B. N. Yathindar Kumar, Vaidhehi Narayan Nayak
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Abstract

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to a group of proteolytic enzymes. They are synthesized as inactive zymogens and ultimately get activated and degrade extracellular matrix which, in turn, leads to tumor progression and metastasis. Numerous studies suggest that individual MMPs have crucial role in tumor invasion and metastasis. As the understanding of the MMPs has advanced, the therapeutic approach on blocking these enzymes by matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors has rapidly developed. At present, clinical assessment of broad spectrum and low-molecular-weight MMP inhibitors is made. In this review, we provide an overview of MMP activities and mentioned briefly on previous studies conducted on appearance of MMPs in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we have discussed the role of MMPs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Keywords: Extracellular matrix, matrix metalloproteinases, membrane type, oral squamous cell carcinoma

How to cite this article: Savita JK, Kumar BNY, Nayak VN. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 124-126

Received: 12 June 2018;

Accepted: 22 July 2018

 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Face transplant: A revolutionary approach and role of dentist
Tanya Nandkeoliar, Kaushik Ranjan Deb
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Abstract

Face transplant forms a part of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation (transfer of organs or tissue from one individual to another), which is the basis of modern microsurgery and reconstructive plastic surgery. A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person’s face using tissue from a cadaver. Face transplantation can include skin from the face, neck and/or scalp, lips and tongue, muscles used for facial movement and expression, and nerves to animate as well as to provide sensation. Supportive bony structures can also be included. Oral surgeons play a major role in alignment of teeth, reconstruction of midface, maxilla, mandible including teeth, and tongue. It gives better esthetics and functional results including increase in the opening of mouth, chewing, and breathing. The new computer-assisted planning and execution system aims to make it less likely to misalign the new set of bones, jaws, and prevent other reconstructive abnormalities. In spite of risks and rejection, face transplant gives a better appearance, i.e., gives a new life to the patient and improves his social status and lifestyle.

Keywords: Face transplant and dentistry, face transplant, vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation

How to cite this article: Nandkeoliar T, Deb KR. Face transplant: A revolutionary approach and role of dentist. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018;5:127-132.

Received: 07 July 2018;

Accepted: 18 August 2018

 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Nanobiomaterials in dental diagnostics: A review
Dr. Poonam Singh, Dr. Braj Bhushan Mall
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Abstract

Nanotechnology has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of the human disease ever since its discovery in 1970s. Conjugation of metal nanoparticles like gold nanoparticles has been successful performed in the biomedical application. The present article summarizes the most commonly used nanomaterials, their properties, and their applications.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, dye-doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles

How to cite this article: Singh P, Mall BB. Nanobiomaterials in dental diagnostics: A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 133-135

Received: 08 July 2018;

Accepted: 19 August 2018

 
CASE REPORT
A rare case report of lupus-associated pancreatitis with Evan’s syndrome complicated by huge pseudocyst of pancreas
H. G. M. Rudraiah, Siddharth Vijay Kalke
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Abstract

This study aims to report a rare case of pseudocyst pancreas in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with Evan’s syndrome. The objective of this case study is to report a rare case of a 20-year-old female with SLE with Evan’s syndrome complicated by a huge pseudocyst of pancreas. This is a very rare case scenario where lupus-induced pancreatitis was complicated by Evan’s syndrome and a huge pseudocyst of pancreas. A 20-year-old female patient known case of SLE with Evan’s syndrome had multiple episodes of acute pancreatitis in 2 years and presented to us with a huge 16.8 cm*12.4 cm pseudocyst of pancreas. The patient was lupus anticoagulant positive and Igm anticardiolipin positive. The patient was on Wysolone 5 mg od and levetiracetam for seizure disorder with severe anemia. After adequate pre-operative management and anemia correction, the patient underwent cystogastrostomy. Due to associated comorbidities and post-operative IV phenytoin infusion, the patient developed purple glove syndrome of the left hand with wrist drop and complete sensory loss. The patient also had cephalic and basilic vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome of the left hand.

Clinical Significance: This case study serves as a learning opportunity and future reference in such rare cases with associated comorbidities and its surgical management and post-operative management.

Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, evan’s syndrome, pseudocyst, systemic lupus erythematosus

How to cite this article: Rudraiah HGM, Kalke SV. A rare case report of lupus-associated pancreatitis with Evan’s syndrome complicated by huge pseudocyst of pancreas. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 136-138

Received: 12 July 2018;

Accepted: 08 August 2018

 
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