Current Issue (Vol 4, May-June 2017 Issue)
 
Topic: Invited Issue
Topic Editor: Dr Vishwanath Rangdhol
Editorial
Paradigm shift in approach to potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer
Vishwanath Rangdhol
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ABSTRACT

The 6th World Oral Cancer Congress of the International Academy of Oral Oncology was held between 17th and 20th of May in Bengaluru, India, and the delegates left contended and 100 times wiser after having an opportunity to listen to a galaxy of eminent clinicians, researchers and academicians

How to cite this article: Rangdhol V. Paradigm shift in approach to potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1.

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Use of dental anxiety questionnaire and clinical approaches: A National survey among pediatric dentists in India
G. S. Prathima, K. Gayathri, G. Kayalvizhi, A. Sanguida
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ABSTRACT

Background: The intensity and nature of dental anxiety varies between individuals. Dental anxiety has been documented as a cause of grave health issues in children and if continued till their adolescence, will lead to unsettling behavior while treatment. Hence, it is essential to recognize a dentally anxious child at the earliest using dental anxiety assessment indices. Hence, the study was planned to evaluate the use of dental anxiety assessment questionnaire and clinical approaches among pediatric dentist in their clinical practice in India.

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the use of dental anxiety assessment questionnaire and the clinical approaches used among pediatric dentists in India.

Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to pediatric dentist, who are members of Indian Society of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, of which 227 members have responded. Information collected from each practitioner was analyzed to assess the use of these anxiety assessment questionnaire and their clinical approaches. Data were statistically analyzed using statistical package Epi Info.

Results: Of the 227 participants, 54.6% were males, and 45.4% were females. The most frequently used technique was non-pharmacological behavior management technique (95.1%). Around 45% of them used dental anxiety assessment indices in their practice and most commonly used scale was Frankl behavior rating scale (51.8%).

Conclusion: Results conclude that 44.5% of pedodontist used dental anxiety questionnaires in their clinical practice.

Keywords: Clinical approaches, dental anxiety, dental fear, pain assessment

How to cite this article: Prathima GS, Gayathri K, Kayalvizhi G, Sanguida A. Use of dental anxiety questionnaire and clinical approaches: A national survey among pediatric dentists in India. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-83.

Received: 15 April 2017;

Accepted: 22 May 2017

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparative evaluation of bone densities in edentulous and dentulous areas by fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs - A retrospective study
Santosh Palla, Vishwanath Rangdhol, S. Jeelani, S. Vandana, T. Sivasankarai
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ABSTRACT

Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in bone trabecular pattern in terms of fractal dimensions (FD), in edentulous and dentulous areas on contralateral sides of the same patient’s radiograph.

Methodology: A retrospective study using box counting method of fractal analysis was performed on pre-processed 97 digital orthopantomographs (OPGs), after subjecting to inclusion and exclusion criteria with the fractal three software.

Results: The mean FD of dentulous and edentulous regions was 1.812 ± 0.085 and 1.728±0.105 (P < 0.005), respectively, calculated by paired sample tests. Higher age group (Group 3) had lower FD values than other two groups (P > 0.01). Female sex had lower FD values than males (P > 0.01).

Conclusion: The tooth loss (edentulous state) is associated with low FD, compared to tooth bearing areas. The method can be used to as a quick tool, to evaluate and compare the bone quality when prosthetic treatments are to be planned.

Keywords: Box counting, digital panoramic radiography, dental implants, fractal analysis, trabecular bone pattern

How to cite this article: Palla S, Rangdhol V, Jeelani S, Vandana S, Sivasankarai T. Comparative evaluation of bone densities in edentulous and dentulous areas by fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs - A retrospective study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-87.

Received: 01 May 2017;

Accepted: 28 May 2017

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence of dental fear and its relationship to dental caries and gingival disease among school children in Puducherry: A cross-sectional study
G. S. Prathima, Abhishek Shaji Varghese, R. Sajeev, G. Kayalvizhi, A. Sanguida, A. Selva Balaji
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ABSTRACT

Background: Dental fear in children has a devastating effect on their behavior which includes them to have a predetermined notion that the dental treatment would be of a painful experience.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of dental fear and its association with dental caries and gingival disease in 6-12-year-old school children in Puducherry.

Materials and Methods: A total of 400 school children (200 boys) and (200 girls) were selected randomly between 6 and 12 years age group. Children completed a modified questionnaire from dental fear survey questionnaire and undertook an oral examination using decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) Index and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI).

Results: Prevalence of low to moderate “general dental fear” was 46%, and while that of high dental fear was 72%. The mean DMFT (1.82 ± 1.74) and GI (1.02 ± 0.54) of boys was not significantly different from the DMFT (1.96 ± 81) and GI (0.95 ± 0.55) of girls (P > 0.05). Spearman’s correlation test demonstrated negative correlation between age and dental fear (r = -0.523; P = 0.005).

Conclusion: No significant alteration was found between male and female children regarding DMFT and gingival scores. Dental fear scores decreased with increasing age. No association was found between dental fear and DMFT and GI scores.

Keywords: Children, dental anxiety, dental caries, gingival condition

How to cite this article: Prathima GS, Varghese AS, Sajeev R, Kayalvizhi G, Sanguida A, Balaji AS. Prevalence of dental fear and its relationship to dental caries and gingival disease among school children in Puducherry: A cross-sectional study J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-91.

Received: 05 May 2017;

Accepted: 10 June 2017

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Assessment of age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of ear: A cross-sectional study
Sivakumar Yoga, John Balaih, Vishwanath Rangdhol, S. Vandana, Swetha Paulose, L. Kavya
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ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of the ear and to create a database for the reported population.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 200 individuals who reported to private dental teaching hospital as outpatient. The study population was explained about the procedure, and informed consent was obtained. The size of the auricle was measured bilaterally. The study population was subdivided into three subgroups. Group I included individuals between 20 and 39 years, Group II between 40 and 59 years, and Group III above 60 years.

Results: The total ear index among women with mean and standard deviation was 4.97 ± 0.6 cm, and men were 5.02 ± 0.4 cm. The lobe index among men with mean and standard deviation was 1.153 ± 0.0163 cm, and women were 1.243 ± 0.0147 cm with a significant P < 0.0001.

Conclusion: The anthropometric measurements of ear index were higher in men than women, with no age changes after 20 years of age for both men and women. Hence, this data are considered reliable and can be used for various purpose including forensics, identification, plastic surgeries, and research.

Keywords: Anthropometric measurement, ear index, external ear, lobe index, sexual dimorphism

How to cite this article: Yoga S, Balaih J, Rangdhol V, Vandana S, Paulose S, Kavya L. Assessment of age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of ear: A cross-sectional study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-95.

Received: 11 May 2017;

Accepted: 12 June 2017

 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Estimation of salivary sialic acid levels as a prognostic marker in patients with oral leukoplakia - A case control study
Sivakumar Yoga, Vishwanath Rangdhol, Nachimuthu Maithilikarpagaselvi, S. Vandana, Swetha Paulose
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ABSTRACT

Background: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a potentially malignant disorder seen in tobacco users. Salivary biomarkers such as salivary sialic acid which is significantly high in OL and oral cancer serves as a potent biomarker for early diagnosis thereby improving prognosis.

Aim: To estimate and compare salivary sialic acid levels in tobacco users with and without OL.

Methods: The study included 172 tobacco users reporting to Private Dental Teaching Hospital, aged between 20 and 70 years, selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into two groups. Study group included 76 patients with OL and control group, 96 patients without OL. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and salivary sialic acid levels were estimated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis (unpaired students t-test).

Results: The mean range of salivary sialic acid in controls was 1.898 ± 0.289 μmol/L and cases was 2.680 ± 0.189 μmol/L. Salivary sialic levels are high in cases when compared with controls with a statistically significant P < 0.001*.

Conclusion: The results of our study clearly indicate that salivary sialic acid levels are significantly raised in patients with OL when compared with patients without OL. With the observations of our study salivary sialic acid proves to be a sensitive, specific, and cost-effective biomarker for OL.

Keywords: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, oral potentially malignant disorder, sialodiagnosis, salivary sialic acid

How to cite this article: Yoga S, Rangdhol V, Maithilikarpagaselvi N, Vandana S, Paulose S. Estimation of salivary sialic acid levels as a prognostic marker in patients with oral leukoplakia - A case-control study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-99.

Received: 18 April 2017;

Accepted: 17 May 2017

 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Interdisciplinary role of oral physician in stomatognathic diseases
S. Jeelani, P. Duraiselvi, R. Amirthaa Priyadharscini
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ABSTRACT

Diagnosis is a pivotal step against any pathology. The role of oral physician in the management of stomatognathic diseases has always been a challenging step both in terms of diagnosis and therapeutics. The scope of the oral physician is diverse. This paper is just a tip of the iceberg reflecting lateral and integrated responsibilities of the specialty in the management of oral and systemic diseases such as temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), cancer, behavioral disorders, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and forensics. The significance of brain pacemakers in the management of refractory depression as a part of neuropsychopharmacological integration, inflammation-based therapeutic modality such as prolotherapy in the treatment of TMD, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation as part of epigenetics in the management of cancer, virtual autopsy using imaging in forensic identification, and phytochemicals as supportive adjuvant for HIV has been dealt as part of this paper. The paper portrays the silent guiding role of an oral physician in the interdisciplinary approach with respect to stomatognathic diseases.

Keywords: Brain pacemakers, cancer, depression, epigenetics, phytochemicals, prolotherapy, temporomandibular disorder, Virtopsy

How to cite this article: Jeelani S, Duraiselvi P, Priyadharscini RA. Interdisciplinary role of oral physician in stomatognathic diseases. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-102.

Received: 02 April 2017;

Accepted: 09 May 2017

 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Diagnostic and therapeutic values of nanotechnology in cancer management
Jeelani. S, R. Amirthaa Priyadharscini, P. Duraiselvi
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ABSTRACT

The early diagnosis and successful management of cancer have always been a challenge. The emerging field of nanotechnology is valuable both with respect to early diagnosis at the most incipient stages and highly targeted harmless treatment which makes this technology an undisputed unique landmark in the milestone of cancer management. This paper reflects a triangular trap approach for cancer therapeutics using nanotechnology-based nanomaterials such as dendrimers, quantum dots (QDs), and nanobubbles. The dendrimers serve as targeted anticancer therapy sparing the adjacent normal cells. The concept of encapsulation and conjugation helps in trapping the drug molecules and targeting them to the specific sites and ultimately releasing them. QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor crystals which serve as early detection tools of cancer. They are composed of cadmium selenide. They possess the ability to glow when they are subjected to ultraviolet light. They play a significant role not only in the early diagnosis of cancer but also in target destruction of the cancerous cells. Nanobubbles are plasmonic (gold) nanoparticles. They cause the destruction of cancerous cells by means of tiny explosions.

Keywords: Cancer, dendrimers, nanobubbles, nanotechnology, quantum dots

How to cite this article: Jeelani S, Priyadharscini RA, Duraiselvi P. Diagnostic and therapeutic values of nanotechnology in cancer management. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:103-105.

Received: 22 April 2017;

Accepted: 09 May 2017

 
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Chlorodontia in a child with neonatal jaundice
Swetha Paulose, Vishwanath Rangdhol, S. Yoga
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ABSTRACT

Background: The eruption of the first tooth is a much anticipated milestone in the developing child. Green dental pigmentation (chlorodontia) is relatively uncommon. Its occurrence causes anxiety to both child and family.

Aim: To present a case involving a 2-year-old boy with green pigmentation of primary teeth with a medical history of neonatal jaundice.

Conclusion: The reported case confirms the relevance of medical history in establishing the diagnosis and management of green teeth. It also emphasizes the role of dental surgeons in providing anticipatory guidance to families of children with chlorodontia.

Keywords: Chlorodontia, green teeth, hyperbilirubinemia

How to cite this article: Paulose S, Rangdhol V, Yoga S. Chlorodontia in a child with neonatal jaundice J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:1-108.

Received: 02 May 2017;

Accepted: 09 June 2017

 
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