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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Host modulation therapy: An updated review
S. Ipshita, Ida Grace Kurian, P. Dileep, C. N. Guruprasad, Priyanka Singh, A. R. Pradeep
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1728

ABSTRACT

Chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin. Microbial biofilm and associated host responses are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The host response is essentially protective by intent but paradoxically can also result in tissue damage. With increasing awareness and understanding of host-microbial interaction in periodontal pathogenesis has lead the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents including antimicrobial therapy as well as host modulatory therapy for the management of periodontitis. Host modulation therapy has emerged in recent years as a valid treatment concept for the management of periodontal disease and represents a significant step forward for the clinician as well as patients with periodontal disease. This review aims at focusing on various host modulatory therapies that have been developed or proposed to modulate host responses for the treatment of periodontitis.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, chronic periodontitis, host response, interleukins, matrix metalloproteinases, statins

How to cite this article: Ipshita S, Kurian IG, Dileep P, Guruprasad CN, Singh P, Pradeep AR. Host modulation therapy: An updated review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:55-58.

Received: 12 March 2017;

Accepted: 20 April 2017

 
2.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Estimation of arecoline content of various forms of areca nut preparations by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography
Dipti Dutta, C. Ramanna, V. V. Kamath
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1168

ABSTRACT

Background: Areca nut and its commercial preparations such as pan masala have been causatively linked in the disorder oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Arecoline, major alkaloid of areca nut, is involved in stimulating fibrosis through transforming growth factor beta pathway. Areca consumed in various forms and with additives alters the arecoline content of the nut.

Aims: Estimation of levels of arecoline in various areca nut preparations consumed in the country (raw, boiled, and roasted) along with commercially prepared sample of areca nut (pan masala).

Materials and Methods: Estimation and validation were performed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography system (CAMAG® Muttenz, Switzerland). Four samples of 5 g each of raw, roasted, boiled, and pan masala containing areca nuts were assessed. Pure arecoline was used for validation as a control. Three runs of each with inter- and intra-day validations were carried out as per established protocols.

Results: Raw areca nut contains the highest concentration of arecoline (1.15 ± 0.008) followed by pan masala preparations (0.94 ± 0.006), least content in boiled areca nut (0.79 ± 0.009), while roasted variety exhibited an intermediate level (0.85 ± 0.007).

Conclusions: Alteration of contents of the areca nut has great implications in its capacity to induce the potentially malignant disorder of OSF. The use of raw areca nuts in commercial preparations and well-known observations of greater incidence of the development of OSF and probable malignant transformation with these forms is probably related to their arecoline content.

Keywords: Arecoline, boiled areca nut, high-pressure thin-layer chromatography, pan masala, raw areca nut, roasted areca nut

How to cite this article: Dutta D, Ramanna C, Kamath VV. Estimation of arecoline content of various forms of areca nut preparations by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:31-37.

Received: 02 Feb 2017;

Accepted: 28 March 2017

 
3.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Assessment of age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of ear: A cross-sectional study
Sivakumar Yoga, John Balaih, Vishwanath Rangdhol, S. Vandana, Swetha Paulose, L. Kavya
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1007

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of the ear and to create a database for the reported population.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 200 individuals who reported to private dental teaching hospital as outpatient. The study population was explained about the procedure, and informed consent was obtained. The size of the auricle was measured bilaterally. The study population was subdivided into three subgroups. Group I included individuals between 20 and 39 years, Group II between 40 and 59 years, and Group III above 60 years.

Results: The total ear index among women with mean and standard deviation was 4.97 ± 0.6 cm, and men were 5.02 ± 0.4 cm. The lobe index among men with mean and standard deviation was 1.153 ± 0.0163 cm, and women were 1.243 ± 0.0147 cm with a significant P < 0.0001.

Conclusion: The anthropometric measurements of ear index were higher in men than women, with no age changes after 20 years of age for both men and women. Hence, this data are considered reliable and can be used for various purpose including forensics, identification, plastic surgeries, and research.

Keywords: Anthropometric measurement, ear index, external ear, lobe index, sexual dimorphism

How to cite this article: Yoga S, Balaih J, Rangdhol V, Vandana S, Paulose S, Kavya L. Assessment of age changes and gender differences based on anthropometric measurements of ear: A cross-sectional study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:92-95.

Received: 11 May 2017;

Accepted: 12 June 2017

 
4.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Oral biopsy in general dental practice
Santosh Hunasgi, Anila Koneru, Vardendra Manvikar, Rudraraju Amrutha, K. M. Parveen Reddy
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 516

ABSTRACT

Proper management of a patient with any oral lesion begins by means of a precise diagnosis. The existing golden criterion for identification is the histopathologic assessment of a tissue biopsy of the doubtful lesion. This is mainly depending on the clinician undertaking a suitable biopsy and providing sufficient medical information, and on the pathologist accurately interprets the biopsy result. Thus, this article focuses on the procedures to undertake biopsy in general dental practice.

Key words: Biopsy, complications, punch, procedure, transport

How to cite this article: Hunasgi S, Koneru A, Manvikar V, Amrutha R, Reddy KMP. Oral biopsy in general dental practice. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:162-165.

Received: 10 July 2017;

Accepted: 14 August 2017

 
5.  Review Article
Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders
Chaya M. David, P. Elavarasi
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 3226

ABSTRACT

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is pivotal in the normal functions such as mastication, speech, esthetics, and overall wellbeing. However, a thorough knowledge of this joint, its anatomy and functional biomechanics is essential for the correct analysis of several of its disorders. It is important to understand the far-reaching effects of any disorder in its anatomy, function, and the psychological impact on the patients. This article takes us through the normal anatomy and functions of the joint and a brief review of its far-reaching effects which at times may sound very vague; however, such knowledge will help to look into a new arena of managing disorders of the TMJ.

Keywords Anatomy, biomechanics, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: David CM, Elavarasi P. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:101-106.

 
6.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used
T. Nigel Tom, M. A. Uthappa, Kiran Sunny, Fouzia Begum, Mansi Nautiyal, Shraddha Tamore
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 2648

ABSTRACT

Provisional restorations are an important phase in the treatment procedure for fixed provisional restoration. Without a temporary the final treatment aspect cannot be judged as we can predict the design failures beforehand as the temporary restoration replicates the final restoration. A temporary also helps the patient as he does not need to compromise esthetically till he receives the final restoration. Here, various techniques and materials available for a fabricating a provisional restoration are explained.

Keywords: Autopolymerized resin, bis-acryl composite, light cure resin, poly-ethyl methacrylate, provisional restoration

How to cite this article: Tom NT, Uthappa MA, Sunny K, Begum F, Nautiyal M, Tamore S. Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:212-214.

Received 1 October 2016;

Accepted 20 October 2016

 
7.  Review Article
The management of temporomandibular disorder using occlusal splint therapy and bio-behavioral therapy
Darshana Sachin Nayak
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1869

ABSTRACT

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term that includes a number of clinical complaints involving the muscles of mastication, the temporomandibular joint, and associated orofacial structures. Diagnosing orofacial pain can be quite difficult as patients may have multiple pain complaints and often present with a confusing constellation of signs and symptoms. Management of TMD is based on certain basic principles that include the formulation of an accurate diagnosis, gradual escalation of therapy, restraining from irreversible forms of treatment and the psychophysiological aspects of the disease. A multidisciplinary model that includes patient awareness and self-care, cognitive behavioral intervention, occlusal splint therapy (OST) is endorsed for the management of most patients. The current article reviews the management of TMD by the OST and bio-behavioral therapies.

Keywords Bio-behavioral therapy, occlusal splint therapy, temporomandibular disorder, temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: Nayak DS. The management of temporomandibular disorder using occlusal splint therapy and biobehavioral therapy. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:94-100.

 
8.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
“Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”
Sarita Yanduri, R. Janani, Veerendra B. Kumar, S. Suma, Tanu Tiwari
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1638

ABSTRACT

Background: The potential for malignant change in oral lichen planus (OLP) is still a matter of controversy. Adding to the persisting controversy, recently there is evidence that oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) may also possess a malignant potential. Increase in cellular proliferation rate enhances the chances that cells may undergo mutations during mitosis which in turn could result in a malignant phenotype.

Aims: The present study is aimed at comparing the proliferative rate of OLP and OLL based on quantitative argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) analysis.

Materials and Methods: The study consisted of the use of 25 archival paraffi nembedded blocks of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OLP (n = 14) and OLL (n = 11). Sections were then stained using an AgNOR technique. Group mean AgNOR values were derived and independent student t-test was applied for statistical analysis.

Results: The mean AgNOR value in OLP group was 2.49 ± 0.91 and the same in OLL group was 2.31±0.43. There was no statistically signifi cant diff erence noted between the two groups with a probability value of 0.531(P ≥ 0.05).

Conclusion: On AgNOR analysis, OLP and OLL behave in a similar manner in terms of cellular proliferation. Accordingly, either OLP or OLL may have a similar predisposition to undergo malignant transformation.

Keywords Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions

How to cite this article: Yanduri S, Janani R, Kumar VB, Suma S, Tiwari T. “Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:118-122.

 
9.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The renal resistive index is a non-invasive indicator of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotics
Mohsin Aslam, S. Ananth Ram, Ajoy Krishnamurthy
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1477

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as unexplained kidney failure in a patient with liver disease. The poor prognosis is due to both liver and renal failure, the latter being due to intrarenal vasoconstriction. The intrarenal arterial Doppler is a non-invasive tool used to study the extent of this vasoconstriction.

Aim: To determine if the intrarenal Doppler helps in indicating HRS in established cases of liver cirrhosis.

Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cirrhotics aged above 18 years with no prior or co-existing renal disorders were subjected to liver function tests, renal function test, complete blood count, urine examination, viral markers, ultrasonography abdomen, and the intrarenal artery Doppler for the resistive index (RI) calculation. RI was calculated using the formula: RI = (peak systolic flow - peak diastolic flow)/peak systolic flow and RI ≥0.77 was taken as diagnostic of HRS.

Results: Out of the 18 patients whose RI <0.77, 17 had normal creatinine. 12 patients who had raised RI, 6 had raised creatinine (2.68), while the other 6 had normal creatinine (0.88) implying that renal RI (RRI) is an early indicator of HRS even before creatinine could rise to fulfill the criteria for HRS.

Conclusion: RRI is a useful tool for indicating HRS in cirrhosis of the liver.

Keywords Cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome, renal artery Doppler, renal resistive index

How to cite this article: Aslam M, Ram SA, Krishnamurthy A. The renal resistive index is a non-invasive indicator of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotics. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:23-27.

 
10.  Clinical Commentary
Dry needling technique in myogenous temporomandibular disorders: A clinical commentary
P. Rajkannan
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1180

ABSTRACT

Dry needling technique has gained huge popularity in recent years, and physical therapists (PTs) all around the globe are keen to learn this technique. Dry needling is a skilled intervention provided by PTs that uses a monofilament needle to advance into the skin and to treat the underlying myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), muscular tissues, and connective tissues for neuromuscular pain and movement impairments.[1] Dry needling is certainly different from acupuncture in a very fundamental way.

How to cite this article: Rajkannan P. Dry needling technique in myogenous temporomandibular disorders: A clinical commentary. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:107-109.

 
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