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1.  Review Article
Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders
Chaya M. David, P. Elavarasi
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1156


The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is pivotal in the normal functions such as mastication, speech, esthetics, and overall wellbeing. However, a thorough knowledge of this joint, its anatomy and functional biomechanics is essential for the correct analysis of several of its disorders. It is important to understand the far-reaching effects of any disorder in its anatomy, function, and the psychological impact on the patients. This article takes us through the normal anatomy and functions of the joint and a brief review of its far-reaching effects which at times may sound very vague; however, such knowledge will help to look into a new arena of managing disorders of the TMJ.

Keywords Anatomy, biomechanics, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: David CM, Elavarasi P. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:101-106.

“Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”
Sarita Yanduri, R. Janani, Veerendra B. Kumar, S. Suma, Tanu Tiwari
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 824


Background: The potential for malignant change in oral lichen planus (OLP) is still a matter of controversy. Adding to the persisting controversy, recently there is evidence that oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) may also possess a malignant potential. Increase in cellular proliferation rate enhances the chances that cells may undergo mutations during mitosis which in turn could result in a malignant phenotype.

Aims: The present study is aimed at comparing the proliferative rate of OLP and OLL based on quantitative argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) analysis.

Materials and Methods: The study consisted of the use of 25 archival paraffi nembedded blocks of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OLP (n = 14) and OLL (n = 11). Sections were then stained using an AgNOR technique. Group mean AgNOR values were derived and independent student t-test was applied for statistical analysis.

Results: The mean AgNOR value in OLP group was 2.49 ± 0.91 and the same in OLL group was 2.31±0.43. There was no statistically signifi cant diff erence noted between the two groups with a probability value of 0.531(P ≥ 0.05).

Conclusion: On AgNOR analysis, OLP and OLL behave in a similar manner in terms of cellular proliferation. Accordingly, either OLP or OLL may have a similar predisposition to undergo malignant transformation.

Keywords Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions

How to cite this article: Yanduri S, Janani R, Kumar VB, Suma S, Tiwari T. “Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:118-122.

Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used
T. Nigel Tom, M. A. Uthappa, Kiran Sunny, Fouzia Begum, Mansi Nautiyal, Shraddha Tamore
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 521


Provisional restorations are an important phase in the treatment procedure for fixed provisional restoration. Without a temporary the final treatment aspect cannot be judged as we can predict the design failures beforehand as the temporary restoration replicates the final restoration. A temporary also helps the patient as he does not need to compromise esthetically till he receives the final restoration. Here, various techniques and materials available for a fabricating a provisional restoration are explained.

Keywords: Autopolymerized resin, bis-acryl composite, light cure resin, poly-ethyl methacrylate, provisional restoration

How to cite this article: Tom NT, Uthappa MA, Sunny K, Begum F, Nautiyal M, Tamore S. Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:212-214.

Received 1 October 2016;

Accepted 20 October 2016

Assessment of maturity in orthodontics: A review
Sushma Dhiman, Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev K. Verma
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 5271


Precise evaluation of maturational stage should be an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment. Different authors had reported different methods in an attempt to determine the best indicator of maturity. These include body height, body weight; sexual maturation; frontal sinus, chronological age, biological age or physiological age; hand-wrist maturity cervical vertebrae; dental eruption; dental calcification stages and biomarkers. Ever the method has its own advantages, disadvantages and over the other method. However, still researches are being done to explore best method to assess the maturity of an individual. This article reviews the methods of assessment of skeletal maturation.

Keywords Biomarkers, Cervical vertebral maturational index, Dental maturation, Hand-wrist radiographs, Skeletal maturation

How to cite this article: Dhiman S, Maheshwari S, Verma SK. Assessment of maturity in orthodontics: A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:100-103.

Received 05 November 2014;
Accepted 20 December 2014

Dermatoglyphic patterns in subjects with potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinoma
Maria Priscilla David, Pooja Sinha
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 4439


Background: The study of the epidermal ridges and the patterns formed by them is dermatoglyphics. The influence of genetic or environmental factors on early development is often reflected by the altered dermatoglyphics. Hence, this study is conducted to determine the dermatoglyphic dependence of potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinoma and hence that preventive measures can be instituted to high.risk groups and prevents the occurrence of disease.

Materials and Methods: Fingerprints were collected using ink method from 70 patients that includes 30 subjects with potentially malignant disorders, 10 subjects with oral cancer and 30 healthy controls. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (Student’s paired t.test).

Results: Mean number of loops and the mean number of total ridge count were found to be higher in case of subjects with potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinoma when compared with controls. Arches were seen predominantly in patients with oral cancer. Right ATD angle was lower in subjects without deleterious habit and potentially malignant disorders. These findings were highly significant statistically.

Conclusion: We, therefore, recommend dermatoglyphics to identify individuals who are more prone to develop potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We suggest the use of the same as an education tool for genetic counseling.

Keywords Dermatoglyphics, oral carcinoma, potentially malignant disorders, ridge count

A dilemma in orthodontics: Extractions in borderline cases
Sushma Dhiman, Sandhya Maheshwari
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 3322


Patient with good facial esthetics require extractions to reach a stable and functional occlusion can be categorized as a borderline case. It may also be defined as the case caught in between the conflict of extraction and nonextraction. Empirical evidence of uncertainty exists with these patients. Borderline cases may also have an absence of dental or craniofacial anomalies, permanent dentition, healthy periodontium and normal anteroposteriorly relationship between maxilla and mandible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe criteria, which should be kept in mind before deciding to go for extraction or nonextraction treatment in borderline cases.

Keywords Borderline, extraction, non-extraction

Reliable molar distalizer: A review
P. Vasanthan, J. Sabarinathan, S. Sabitha, R. C. Sathishkumar
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 2571


Current orthodontic philosophies have been oriented toward various conservative treatment methods to eliminate extractions and also try to avoid the demand for patient compliance. The distalization of molars creates additional space within the alveolar arch, and it is of important value for the cases with minimal arch length discrepancy and Angle’s Class-II molar relationship associated with normal mandible. Several appliances have been advocated to distalize molars in the upper arch. But, recent advances in molar distalization appliance design provide more precise control in bodily movement of teeth enabling better treatment options in orthodontics.

Keywords: Conventional pendulum appliances, modified pendulum appliances, molar distalization

8.  Original Article
Efficacy of topical curcumin in the management of oral lichen planus: A randomized controlled-trial
Deepika Keshari, Karthikeya Patil, Mahima V.G.
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1823


Background: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, mucocutaneous condition which commonly involves the oral mucosa. Management of oral lichen planus (OLP) is important as it is an oral potentially malignant disorder. Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment; however, their usage is associated with potential side effects. Phytochemicals, such as curcumin, have been used extensively for centuries, owing to its numerous therapeutic properties.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical curcumin in the management of OLP.

Materials and Methods: The research group consisted of 27 adult OLP patients, who were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 12) was treated with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% and the study group (n = 15) with commercially available topical curcumin ointment each to be applied thrice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were reviewed every week.

Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA were performed.

Results: The research groups showed a significant reduction in all the parameters measured. The comparison showed significant improvement in the erythema (P = 0.002), but non-significant reduction in pain (P = 0.697), and ulceration (P = 0.291) in the study group as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Curcumin fared better in reducing pain, erythema, and ulceration. Thus, curcumin can be used as an alternative to steroid in the management of signs and symptoms of OLP with minimal side effects as compared to steroids with similar efficacy.

Keywords Corticosteroids, curcumin, oral lichen planus, potentially malignant disorder, topical

How to cite this article: Keshari D, Patil K, Mahima VG. Efficacy of topical curcumin in the management of oral lichen planus: A randomized controlled-trial. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:197-203.

Received 03 July 2015;
Accepted 29 August 2015

Knowledge, attitude and practice towards oral health care among parents of autism spectrum disorder children
Jyoti Magoo, Ashmitha K. Shetty, Prakash Chandra, Latha Anandkrishna, Punitha S. Kamath, Usha Iyengar
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1680


Background: Parents, usually, are the primary decision makers on matters affecting their child’s overall health including oral health. Owing to the lack of cooperation, co-occurring disorders and its financial burden on parents, oral health is often neglected in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards oral health care among parents of ASD children.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an Autistic school for children, in North Bengaluru. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed to 60 parents. Oral examination of the children was done to record gingival status using dichotomous scale and dentition status was recorded using decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft indices. Descriptive analysis was performed. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Version 19.0 (IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).

Results: About 76.9% of the parents had the knowledge that oral health affects the overall health of the child. 40.4% thought that they should consult a pediatric dentist when the child had dental problems. 71.2% parents felt the importance of maintaining primary teeth. However 61.5% did not want any treatment for decay in primary teeth. 82.7% parents brushed their child’s teeth once daily. 94.2% of the parents used conventional toothbrushes for their children. Attitudes and practice of parents seemed to be governed by financial restraints, and preconceived notions regarding co-operation of their child.

Conclusion: The knowledge towards oral health was noted to be inadequate among majority of the parents. Furthermore, parents whose knowledge was adequate had not incorporated healthy daily practices. Parents of ASD children need to be educated about consequences of oral health neglect and importance of regular check-ups. Education of parents, access to dental care and affordability of oral health care services for this special group are critical factors for achieving optimal oral health in these patients.

Keywords Autism spectrum disorder, Knowledge, Oral health practices, Parents

How to cite this article: Magoo J, Shetty AK, Chandra P, Anandakrishna L, Kamath PS, Iyengar U. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward oral health care among parents of autism spectrum disorder children. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:82-86.

Received 01 September2014;
Accepted 20 October 2014

Epidemiology of orofacial pain: A retrospective study
Akshay Shetty, Leena James, Tejavathi Nagaraj, Marin Abraham
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1647


Background: The orofacial pain is a pervasive situation either of somatic or psychological etiology arising from the structures supplied by the trigeminal nerve. Identifying the cause of orofacial pain goes a long way in diagnosis and treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate the cause of pain among the subjects reporting to the dental college.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a group of patients with persistent facial pain with an ebb to respond properly to previous treatments were assigned to specialists associated with Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial surgery in Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital from March 2010-April 2011.

Results: It was found that pulpitis was the most common cause of orofacial pain followed by periodontal pain. Neuralgias and TMJ disorders were the least likely cause.

Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approaches and a biopsychosocial model of pain management are an essential adjunct to established evidence-based medical and surgical management of these conditions

Keywords Epidemiology, orofacial pain, pulpitis, trigeminal system

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