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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Host modulation therapy: An updated review
S. Ipshita, Ida Grace Kurian, P. Dileep, C. N. Guruprasad, Priyanka Singh, A. R. Pradeep
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 683

ABSTRACT

Chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin. Microbial biofilm and associated host responses are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The host response is essentially protective by intent but paradoxically can also result in tissue damage. With increasing awareness and understanding of host-microbial interaction in periodontal pathogenesis has lead the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents including antimicrobial therapy as well as host modulatory therapy for the management of periodontitis. Host modulation therapy has emerged in recent years as a valid treatment concept for the management of periodontal disease and represents a significant step forward for the clinician as well as patients with periodontal disease. This review aims at focusing on various host modulatory therapies that have been developed or proposed to modulate host responses for the treatment of periodontitis.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, chronic periodontitis, host response, interleukins, matrix metalloproteinases, statins

How to cite this article: Ipshita S, Kurian IG, Dileep P, Guruprasad CN, Singh P, Pradeep AR. Host modulation therapy: An updated review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2017;4:55-58.

Received: 12 March 2017;

Accepted: 20 April 2017

 
2.  Review Article
Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders
Chaya M. David, P. Elavarasi
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1872

ABSTRACT

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is pivotal in the normal functions such as mastication, speech, esthetics, and overall wellbeing. However, a thorough knowledge of this joint, its anatomy and functional biomechanics is essential for the correct analysis of several of its disorders. It is important to understand the far-reaching effects of any disorder in its anatomy, function, and the psychological impact on the patients. This article takes us through the normal anatomy and functions of the joint and a brief review of its far-reaching effects which at times may sound very vague; however, such knowledge will help to look into a new arena of managing disorders of the TMJ.

Keywords Anatomy, biomechanics, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: David CM, Elavarasi P. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of temporomandibular joint and the far-reaching effects of its disorders. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:101-106.

 
3.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used
T. Nigel Tom, M. A. Uthappa, Kiran Sunny, Fouzia Begum, Mansi Nautiyal, Shraddha Tamore
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1803

ABSTRACT

Provisional restorations are an important phase in the treatment procedure for fixed provisional restoration. Without a temporary the final treatment aspect cannot be judged as we can predict the design failures beforehand as the temporary restoration replicates the final restoration. A temporary also helps the patient as he does not need to compromise esthetically till he receives the final restoration. Here, various techniques and materials available for a fabricating a provisional restoration are explained.

Keywords: Autopolymerized resin, bis-acryl composite, light cure resin, poly-ethyl methacrylate, provisional restoration

How to cite this article: Tom NT, Uthappa MA, Sunny K, Begum F, Nautiyal M, Tamore S. Provisional restorations: An overview of materials used. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:212-214.

Received 1 October 2016;

Accepted 20 October 2016

 
4.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
“Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”
Sarita Yanduri, R. Janani, Veerendra B. Kumar, S. Suma, Tanu Tiwari
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 1359

ABSTRACT

Background: The potential for malignant change in oral lichen planus (OLP) is still a matter of controversy. Adding to the persisting controversy, recently there is evidence that oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) may also possess a malignant potential. Increase in cellular proliferation rate enhances the chances that cells may undergo mutations during mitosis which in turn could result in a malignant phenotype.

Aims: The present study is aimed at comparing the proliferative rate of OLP and OLL based on quantitative argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) analysis.

Materials and Methods: The study consisted of the use of 25 archival paraffi nembedded blocks of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OLP (n = 14) and OLL (n = 11). Sections were then stained using an AgNOR technique. Group mean AgNOR values were derived and independent student t-test was applied for statistical analysis.

Results: The mean AgNOR value in OLP group was 2.49 ± 0.91 and the same in OLL group was 2.31±0.43. There was no statistically signifi cant diff erence noted between the two groups with a probability value of 0.531(P ≥ 0.05).

Conclusion: On AgNOR analysis, OLP and OLL behave in a similar manner in terms of cellular proliferation. Accordingly, either OLP or OLL may have a similar predisposition to undergo malignant transformation.

Keywords Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions

How to cite this article: Yanduri S, Janani R, Kumar VB, Suma S, Tiwari T. “Comparative assessment of cellular proliferative potential in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions by quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions”. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:118-122.

 
5.  Review Article
The management of temporomandibular disorder using occlusal splint therapy and bio-behavioral therapy
Darshana Sachin Nayak
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 923

ABSTRACT

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term that includes a number of clinical complaints involving the muscles of mastication, the temporomandibular joint, and associated orofacial structures. Diagnosing orofacial pain can be quite difficult as patients may have multiple pain complaints and often present with a confusing constellation of signs and symptoms. Management of TMD is based on certain basic principles that include the formulation of an accurate diagnosis, gradual escalation of therapy, restraining from irreversible forms of treatment and the psychophysiological aspects of the disease. A multidisciplinary model that includes patient awareness and self-care, cognitive behavioral intervention, occlusal splint therapy (OST) is endorsed for the management of most patients. The current article reviews the management of TMD by the OST and bio-behavioral therapies.

Keywords Bio-behavioral therapy, occlusal splint therapy, temporomandibular disorder, temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: Nayak DS. The management of temporomandibular disorder using occlusal splint therapy and biobehavioral therapy. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:94-100.

 
6.  Clinical Commentary
Dry needling technique in myogenous temporomandibular disorders: A clinical commentary
P. Rajkannan
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 629

ABSTRACT

Dry needling technique has gained huge popularity in recent years, and physical therapists (PTs) all around the globe are keen to learn this technique. Dry needling is a skilled intervention provided by PTs that uses a monofilament needle to advance into the skin and to treat the underlying myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), muscular tissues, and connective tissues for neuromuscular pain and movement impairments.[1] Dry needling is certainly different from acupuncture in a very fundamental way.

How to cite this article: Rajkannan P. Dry needling technique in myogenous temporomandibular disorders: A clinical commentary. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:107-109.

 
7.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Oral candidal carriage and species identification among betel quid chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients
Preethi Somashekhar, V. V. Kamath, C. Ramanna
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 608

ABSTRACT

Background: The Candida species are saprophytic component of the normal oral microbiota. The disequilibrium in the homeostasis between Candida, host immune system and normal oral bacterial flora promotes a Candida carriage.

Aim of the Study: The present study was done to assess oral candidal carriage and species identification among healthy subjects, betel quid chewing (BQC), and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients using CHROMagar® media.

Materials and Methods: Oral swabs collected from the reservoirs of Candida species (buccal mucosa and tongue) in study groups using sterile cotton swabs were inoculated on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar candidal medium and CHROMagar® Candida agar medium consecutively. Determination of Candida species was done based on morphology characteristics and pigment produced. The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test.

Results: Candida carriage was more in samples of buccal mucosa followed by the tongue. Candida albicans was the major isolate in both healthy subjects and BQC but with greater frequency in BQC. Candida tropicalis was the major isolate in OSF patients predominantly in buccal mucosa followed by the tongue.

Conclusion: C. tropicalis, a non-C. albicans species, was the major isolate in OSF. This unique finding implicates an immunological change of oral environment brought about by BQC and OSF.

Keywords Betel quid chewing, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, CHROMagar®, oral submucous fibrosis

How to cite this article: Somashekhar P, Kamath VV, Ramanna C. Oral candidal carriage and species identification among betel quid chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:133-138.

 
8.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The renal resistive index is a non-invasive indicator of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotics
Mohsin Aslam, S. Ananth Ram, Ajoy Krishnamurthy
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 591

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as unexplained kidney failure in a patient with liver disease. The poor prognosis is due to both liver and renal failure, the latter being due to intrarenal vasoconstriction. The intrarenal arterial Doppler is a non-invasive tool used to study the extent of this vasoconstriction.

Aim: To determine if the intrarenal Doppler helps in indicating HRS in established cases of liver cirrhosis.

Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cirrhotics aged above 18 years with no prior or co-existing renal disorders were subjected to liver function tests, renal function test, complete blood count, urine examination, viral markers, ultrasonography abdomen, and the intrarenal artery Doppler for the resistive index (RI) calculation. RI was calculated using the formula: RI = (peak systolic flow - peak diastolic flow)/peak systolic flow and RI ≥0.77 was taken as diagnostic of HRS.

Results: Out of the 18 patients whose RI <0.77, 17 had normal creatinine. 12 patients who had raised RI, 6 had raised creatinine (2.68), while the other 6 had normal creatinine (0.88) implying that renal RI (RRI) is an early indicator of HRS even before creatinine could rise to fulfill the criteria for HRS.

Conclusion: RRI is a useful tool for indicating HRS in cirrhosis of the liver.

Keywords Cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome, renal artery Doppler, renal resistive index

How to cite this article: Aslam M, Ram SA, Krishnamurthy A. The renal resistive index is a non-invasive indicator of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotics. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:23-27.

 
9.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of curcumin in management of potentially malignant disorders: A review of literature
Sunil Vasudev, Chinmay Dilip Vakade, Roshan Cherian Paramesh, Priyanka Belgal
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 573

ABSTRACT

Potentially malignant disorders (PMD) are premalignant lesions or conditions having a high rate of malignant transformation. The risk of malignancy accounts for more than 50% in the commonly occurring oral PMD. There is a need to identify oral PMD early on and prevent their transformation into malignancy. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of oral PMD. Curcumin, an antioxidant has shown promising results in oral PMD by reducing oxidative stress by various mechanisms. The aim of this article is to shed light on the use of curcumin in different oral PMD, its benefits, and shortcomings based on previously published literature.

Keywords Oral PMD, Curcumin, Antioxidant, Leukoplakia, OSMF, Erythroplakia and Lichen Planus

How to cite this article: Vasudev S, Vakade CD, Paramesh RC, Belgal P. Role of curcumin in management of potentially malignant disorders: A review of literature. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:152-155.

 
10.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Bleached vegetable oil as a suitable bio-safe alternative to xylene: An exploratory study
M. G. Madhura, V. Soumya Bhavana, B. Veerendra Kumar, S. Suma, Y. Sarita
Full Text PDF | Abstract | No of Hits : 545

ABSTRACT

Background: Xylene is used as a clearing and dewaxing agent during routine tissue processing in histopathology laboratories. Despite its excellent clearing property, xylene is associated with adequate amount of toxicity. Therefore, various substitutes for xylene such as mineral oil and vegetable oil mixtures have been explored and are well documented in English literature.

Aims and Objectives: This study had aimed at assessing the efficacy of bleached vegetable oil as a clearing and a dewaxing agent. The objectives were to compare the clearing ability of bleached vegetable oil with that of xylene.

Materials and Methods: A total of 12 normal oral mucosal samples (n = 12) were cut into pairs forming two groups - Group A tissues (n = 12) were processed in xylene and Group B tissues (n = 12) were processed in bleached vegetable (palm) oil. The parameters such as transparency of the tissues, nuclear and cytoplasmic staining were assessed between the two groups.

Results: Tissues from both the study groups were transparent and had yielded good serial sections; adequate nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was observed in 91.7% of sections treated with bleached palm oil.

Conclusion: Bleached vegetable oil may be used as a safer substitute for xylene in tissue processing.

Keywords: Bleached vegetable oil (palm oil), hematoxylin-eosin stain, section, tissue, xylene

How to cite this article: Madhura MG, Bhavana VS, Kumar BV, Suma S, Sarita Y. Bleached vegetable oil as a suitable bio-safe alternative to xylene: An exploratory study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:185-189.

Received 08 September 2016;

Accepted 11 October 2016

 
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