Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights

Vol. 3 | No.2 | March-April 2016 Issue

1.EDITORIAL

Orofacial pain: A bird’s eye view

Dr. V. G. Mahima

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:41–42 | No. of Hits: 300


ABSTRACT

Pain is a subjective expression. An individual learns its expression through experiences encountered in the early life.[1] Pain is an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience related to noxious or potentially noxious stimuli.

How to cite this article: Mahima VG. Orofacial pain: A bird’s eye view. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:41-42.


2.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Low-level laser therapy for alleviation of pain from fi xed orthodontic appliance therapy: A randomized controlled trial

Prasannasrinivas Deshpande, Karthikeya Patil, V. G. Mahima, B. M. Shivalinga, M. Suchetha, Abhishek Ranjan

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:43–46 | No. of Hits: 292 [No. of Citation: 6]


ABSTRACT

Background: Pain as a result of tooth movement is a common clinical symptom for orthodontic patients. Pain increases after the placement of the first arch wire ranging from slight discomfort to throbbing pain. Pharmacological therapy may has undesirable side effects. Furthermore, it has been observed that use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impedes tooth movement which is critical for any orthodontic treatment. For these reasons, there is high need of other non-pharmacological interventions to manage pain.

Objective: The study was designed to assess the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in alleviating pain from fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 30 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. They were categorized into three groups with 10 subjects in each group as intervention (LLLT) group (IG) - received LLLT, placebo (blind) group (PG) - received simulated LLLT, and control group (CG). Pain was evaluated using a pain questionnaire at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after LLLT.

Results: At 48 h statistically significant difference in pain score was noted between IG and CG (P = 0.001) while IG and PG were insignificant (P = 0.088). At 72 h statistically significant difference in pain score was noted between IG and PG (0.08); IG and CG were 0.001 while PG and CG were insignificant (0.915).

Conclusion: LLLT reduced the duration and intensity of the pain in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy.

Keywords Fixed orthodontic appliance therapy, low level laser therapy, pain, soft lasers

How to cite this article: Deshpande P, Patil K, Mahima VG, Shivalinga BM, Suchetha M, Ranjan A. Low-level laser therapy for alleviation of pain from fixed orthodontic appliance therapy: A randomized controlled trial. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:43-46.


3.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Low-level laser therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the management of temporomandibular disorders

Karthikeya Patil, Anudeep Raina Mutneja, Prasanna Srinivas Deshpande, Puneet Mutneja, C. J. Sanjay

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:47–50 | No. of Hits: 821


ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).

Background: TMDs are a collective term embracing a number of clinical problems that affect the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures, or both.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with TMD of muscular origin were randomly selected and divided into two groups: Group 1 comprising 10 patients who were to receive LLLT and Group 2 constituting 10 patients who were to obtain TENS therapy. Treatment included nine sessions of the respective therapy rendered over the period of 30-day to patients of either group. The visual analog scale (VAS), improvement in mouth opening and evaluation by palpation of temporalis and masseter muscle were used for follow-up analysis. A paired t-test was employed to study the significance of the results.

Results: The results showed a reduction in VAS values and tenderness to muscle palpation for both groups. A significant improvement in mouth opening was also noted in the course of therapy in both groups.

Conclusion: Both LLLT and TENS were effective with regard to pain control, improvement in mouth opening and reduction in temporalis and masseter muscle tenderness. LLLT appeared slightly better than TENS therapy when evaluating variables of VAS and mouth opening.

Keywords Low-level laser therapy, physiotherapy, temporomandibular disorders, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation

How to cite this article: Patil K, Mutneja AR, Deshpande PS, Mutneja P, Sanjay CJ. Low-level laser therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the management of temporomandibular disorders. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:47-50.


4.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Evaluation of conventional therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation therapy, and placebo in management of myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome: A comparative study

Altaf Hussain Chalkoo, Nusrat Nazir

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:51–55 | No. of Hits: 941


ABSTRACT

Background: One of the highly prevalent and distressing conditions affecting orofacial region is orofacial pain. For proper management and correct diagnosis, clinician needs to have sound knowledge of all painful conditions affecting orofacial region. Our study focuses on myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome (MPDS).

Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients who reported to the post-graduate Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were selected randomly after complete clinical and radiographic evaluation into four Groups of 15 patients each. Group A was given conventional treatment including muscle relaxants, analgesics, soft diet, and hot fomentations, Group B transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation therapy (TENS), Group C combined conventional and TENS treatment while Group D as the placebo group. All four groups were analyzed under four parameters of visual analog scale measurement, interincisal mouth opening, muscle tenderness, and clicking.

Results: In Group C, a significant improvement was seen in terms of muscle tenderness, pain, and maximum mouth opening (MMO) during different visits. Average values for pain, muscle tenderness, and MMO were significantly better in combined conventional group as compared to conventional, TENS therapy and placebo group.

Conclusion: It was concluded at the end of the study that the effective treatment modality in MPDS is combined conventional method as compared to other methods of treatment.

Keywords TENS therapy, Muscle relaxants, Placebo, Pain score, Mouth opening

How to cite this article: Chalkoo AH, Nazir N. Evaluation of conventional therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation therapy, and placebo in management of myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome: A comparative study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:51-55.


5.REVIEW ARTICLE

Role of low-level laser therapy in treatment of orofacial pain: A systematic review

Mukta B. Motwani, Apeksha S. Balpande, Nilufer G. Pajnigara, Natasha G. Pajnigara, Gupta Shweta, Neha C. Iyer

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:56–59 | No. of Hits: 260


ABSTRACT

Lasers have gained an upper hand in almost every field of dentistry. Utilization of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) which uses a power of <500 mW have matured over time. Its advantages surpass its pitfalls and hardly have any contraindications. Low lasers interact photo-chemically leading to a change in the biochemical and molecular processes that normally occur in tissues such as healing or repair without the thermal effects, a process called bio-stimulation. It has been implied that low power lasers affects cellular metabolic processes and promotes beneficial biological effects such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and healing. Research suggests an analgesic effect, through the central release of serotonin and acetylcholine, and peripheral release of histamine and prostaglandins, with the use of LLLT. LLLT improve endorphin release and thereby impede nociceptive signals and control pain mediators. This article aims to review the interesting clinical applications of LLLT in different orofacial pain conditions in details so that we can help patients to live a pain-free life.

Keywords Analgesic, low level laser therapy, orofacial pain

How to cite this article: Motwani MB, Balpande AS, Pajnigara NG, Pajnigara NG, Shweta G, Iyer NC. Role of low-level laser therapy in treatment of orofacial pain: A systematic review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:56-59.


6.REVIEW ARTICLE

Oral cancer associated orofacial pain: An overview

K. P. Mahesh, D. Nagabhushana

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:60–63 | No. of Hits: 567


ABSTRACT

Cancer pain is an ever-present public health concern. Most cancer patients will experience uncontrollable pain that creates a poor quality of life and limits normal function. Cancer-associated pain is associated with severe physical and psychological suffering. Unfortunately, pain associated with cancer or its treatment is frequently under-treated, probably due to several factors, including phobia of opioids, underreporting by patients, and under-diagnosis by health-care workers. The most common etiology of cancer pain is local tumor invasion (primary or metastatic) that involves inflammatory and neuropathic mechanisms.

Keywords Opioids, orofacial pain, squamous cell carcinoma

How to cite this article: Mahesh KP, Nagabhushana D. Oral cancer associated orofacial pain: An overview. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:60-63.


7.KAP SURVEY

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices of dental practitioners regarding temporomandibular joint disorders in India

Seema Patil, Asha R. Iyengar, Ramneek

Year:2016 | Month:March-April | Volume:3 | Number:2 | Pages No:64–71 | No. of Hits: 487


ABSTRACT

Background: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) are one of the major causes of chronic orofacial pain affecting 28-86% of the population. The diagnosis of TMDs is challenging to a considerable number of practitioners and is influenced by their knowledge, attitude and experience.

Aim: This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding TMDs among TMD experts and general dental practitioners (GDPs) in India.

Materials and Methods: A total of 200 dental practitioners (32 TMD experts and 168 GDPs) across India, registered under the Dental Council of India, were included in the survey. A questionnaire consisting of 21 issues with regard to TMDs was designed from relevant standard textbooks. The questionnaire was pretested for validation and distributed personally or through the web designed program. The knowledge and attitude scores of both the groups were assessed and compared. The therapeutic modalities practiced by the groups were also noted.

Results: A significant difference was found in the knowledge scores and attitude between TMD experts and GDPs. A significant correlation was found between attitude score and years of experience in both the groups. Both TMD experts and GDPs expressed little confidence in the management of TMDs. About 75% of GDPs expressed concern over an inadequate number of TMD experts.

Conclusion: Need for continued updating of knowledge, panel discussions, and revisions of the curriculum in graduate schools was realized.

Keywords Dental practitioners, knowledge, attitude and practice survey, temporomandibular joint disorders

How to cite this article: Patil S, Iyengar AR, Ramneek. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices of dental practitioners regarding temporomandibular joint disorders in India. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2016;3:64-71.