Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights

Vol. 5 | No.5 | September-OCtober 2018 Issue

1.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Detection of red complex organisms in chronic periodontitis by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

Aarati Nayak, Kishore Bhat, Sachin Shivanaikar, P. Pushpa, Manohar Kugaji, Vijay Kumbar

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:139–144 | No. of Hits: 556


ABSTRACT

Background: Periodontitis is widely regarded as the second most common disease worldwide after dental decay. The trigger for the initiation of the disease is the presence of complex microbial biofilm in the subgingival area. The Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria have been found to predominate in the subgingival niche. The red complex, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia encompasses the most important pathogens in chronic periodontitis. The data of these microorganisms in periodontal disease in our country is sparse, hence, the aim of the study.

Materials and Methods: A total of 170 subjects from both the sexes and within an age group of 21.85 years with chronic periodontitis were selected. Sub-gingival pooled plaque sample was collected by sterile Gracey curette from two deep periodontal pockets (probing depth [PD] ≥5 mm) DNA was isolated using in-house laboratory and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was carried out.

Results: The mean gingival index, PD, and clinical attachment level were calculated, and the prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia in individual and combination was also detected. The statistical analysis for the above-mentioned parameters was done using the software.

Conclusion: It was observed that there was a statistically significant increase in red complex bacteria in the age group >41 years, although no gender bias was seen. Out of 170 subjects, 106 showed positive for red complex organisms, either singly or in varied combinations.

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, red complex

How to cite this article: Nayak A, Bhat K, Shivanaikar S, Pushpa P, Kugaji M, Kumbar V. Detection of red complex organisms in chronic periodontitis by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5:139-144.

Received: 20 August 2018;

Accepted: 22 September 2018


2.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Accuracy of the detection of simulated condylar lesions on panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography

Swathi Mani, Shubhasini Raghavan, Praveen Birur, Shubha Gurudath, G. Keerthi

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:145–150 | No. of Hits: 229


ABSTRACT

Background: Degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease is characterized by destruction of the articular surface of mandibular condyle.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the smallest lesion on mandibular condyle that could be detected on panoramic radiograph compared to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and Methods: A total of 15 dry human mandibles were included in the study. Three surgical carbide drill bits of diameters 1.8 mm, 2.3 mm, and 4.5 mm length were used to drill holes on anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, and superior surfaces of the condyles. Panoramic and CBCT images were obtained and evaluated by two observers to detect lesions. Interobserver variability was obtained by the application of Cohen’s kappa coefficient statistical measure.

Results: On panoramic images, kappa value showed fair (0.324), moderate (0.537), and substantial agreement (0.667) for small, shallow, and deeper lesion on condyle, respectively. 16.6% of small, 43.3% of shallow, and 46.3% of deeper lesions were visualized on panoramic images compared to CBCT images. These lesions were predominantly on the superior surface of the condyle.

Conclusion: Panoramic radiography can be used to detect lesions on the superior surface of the condyle of more than 2.3 mm diameter or more than 4.5 mm depth. Additional imaging modality such as CBCT is recommended for TMJ degenerative disorders.

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, mandibular condyle, panoramic radiography, temporomandibular joint disorders

How to cite this article: Mani S, Raghavan S, Birur P, Gurudath S, Keerthi G. Accuracy of the detection of simulated condylar lesions on panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018;5:145-150.

Received: 12 August 2018

Accepted: 24 September 2018


3.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Analysis of palatal rugae in males and females of Saudi Arabian population (Makkah province)

Hajer Ayed Alhejoury, Pramod Redder Chandrappa, Dareen Khalid Aljehani, Basem Mohamed Mohsen Abuzenada

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:151–153 | No. of Hits: 418


ABSTRACT

Background: It is a well-known fact that teeth are considered crucial in identification; in edentulous cases, palatal rugae are handy in individual identification. There are evidences proved that there are gender related and geographic variation in palatal rugae pattern. Hence, the purpose of this study was to figure out the role of palatal rugae in differentiation between sexes of Saudi Arabian population.

Materials and Methods: A total of 50 maxillary dental stone cast were prepared comprised both male and female samples of same age group, casts were looked for rugae shape such as straight, wavy, curved, unification, and circular and their percentage recorded.

Results: The average number of rugae patterns in both sexes in total and the mean values that show no significant differences between both sexes although the number of rugae was slightly higher in male than females in total.

Conclusion: This work concludes that rugae patterns can be used as additional method for identification as a personal print and considered a characteristic to discriminate between individuals.

Keywords: Individual identification, rugae pattern, sex determination

How to cite this article: Alhejoury HA, Chandrappa PR, Aljehani DK, Abuzenada BMM. Analysis of palatal rugae in males and females of Saudi Arabian population (Makkah province). J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 151-153.

Received: 02 August 2018;

Accepted: 12 September 2018


4.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from oral cavity in Indian population - A culture-based study

Preeti S. Ingalagi, Kishore G. Bhat, R. D. Kulkarni, Vijayalakshmi S. Kotrashetti, Geeta Pattar

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:154–159 | No. of Hits: 388


ABSTRACT

Background: Among the many oral bacteria residing in the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis is known to be the major organism associated with periodontitis. Different methods have been used for identification. However, culture is the gold standard in identification. Culture helps in characterization of the physiologic characters, identification pathogenic traits, virulence factors, etc. Gene alterations can be studied better if the organism is cultivated in the laboratory.

Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives were to study the isolation of P. gingivalis from subgingival plaque samples of periodontally healthy and diseased individuals by culture and phenotypic identification.

Materials and Methods: A total of 400 subjects each with 200 chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals were selected. Patients meeting all criteria’s samples were inoculated on Blood agar fortified with Hemin and Vitamin K media. Phenotypic characterization was done by morphological and biochemical analysis to identify P. gingivalis.

Results: Of 400 samples, 173 were male and 227 were female. In chronic periodontitis, 119 were female and 81 were male. The total sample positive for P gingivalis was 288. In chronic periodontitis, the positivity for P gingivalis was 179. The positivity for P gingivalis was more in females 168.

Conclusion: Identification of anaerobic microbes can be easily done these anaerobic culture techniques. Hence, we recommend using these techniques in the identification of oral anaerobes as a routine laboratory procedure which is lacking in our country.

Keywords: Anaerobic culture, oral anaerobes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontitis, plaque, subgingival

How to cite this article: Ingalagi PS, Bhat KG, Kulkarni RD, Kotrashetti VS, Pattar G. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from oral cavity in Indian population - A culture-based study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5:154-159.

Received: 02 September 2018;

Accepted: 22 October 2018


5.REVIEW ARTICLE

Podoplanin expression and clinicopathological correlation in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A review

Kritika Rai, Kavitha Prasad, Parimala Sagar, Roopa S Rao

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:160–165 | No. of Hits: 284


ABSTRACT

Podoplanin is a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein that been highly and specifically expressed in the lymphatic endothelial cells but not in the endothelium of blood vessels. Studies have shown the expression of podoplanin in squamous cell carcinomas and a relationship with the clinicopathological features. This raises a possibility that podoplanin may have a biological function in tumor cells and its expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. A review was undertaken to summarize the results of the published studies on the expression of podoplanin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in relation to clinicopathological parameters from the year 2006 to 2016. This review showed that podoplanin was highly expressed in OSCC, and podoplanin expression was associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics. Since OSCC spreads through the lymphatic route, podoplanin could be used as a potential biomarker in assessing the lymph node metastasis and prognosis. The expression of podoplanin by the tumor cells can also help in assessing the tumor progression.

Keywords: D2-40, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, podoplanin

How to cite this article: Rai K, Prasad K, Sagar P, Rao RS. Podoplanin expression and clinicopathological correlation in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5:160-165.

Received: 20 September 2018;

Accepted: 23 October 2018


6.REVIEW ARTICLE

Mobile phone: An arch enemy?

Tejavathi Nagaraj, Haritma Nigam, Sushant Anant, C. K. Sumana, Sita Gogula

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:166–169 | No. of Hits: 384


ABSTRACT

The use of mobile phones is increasing day-by-day. However, with every technological advancement showing its positive aspect has some negative effect on health too. This is a comprehensive review highlighting about all the possible hazards related to the effect of cell phone radiations on human health. It recapitulates and shows the damaging biological eff ects of radiofrequency radiations released by mobile phones on human body including oral cavity. This article has emphasized on the deteriorating changes in the individuals using mobile phones frequently.

Keywords: Degenerative changes, mobile phones, radiofrequency radiations

How to cite this article: Nagaraj T, Nigam H, Anant S, Sumana CK, Gogula S. Mobile phone: An arch enemy? J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 166-169

Received: 01 September 2018;

Accepted: 03 October 2018


7.CASE REPORT

A rare case report of sclerosing mesenteritis presenting as a huge abdominal mass

H. G. M. Rudraiah, Siddharth Vijay Kalke, Aniruddha Desai

Year:2018 | Month:September-OCtober | Volume:5 | Number:5 | Pages No:170–172 | No. of Hits: 278


ABSTRACT

IGG4 sclerosing mesenteritis is a very rare occurrence in the elderly which is often missed or undiagnosed. We present a very rare case of 70-year-old female who presented with vague abdominal discomfort associated with a huge intra-abdominal mass of size 18 cm*10 cm hard in consistency in the left hypochondrium slightly extending into the left lumbar region not associated with any bleeding per rectum, anemia, constipation, or features suggestive of obstruction. Diagnostic dilemma was established when contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed neoplasia of the transverse colon with luminal narrowing, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed desmoid tumor, and colonoscopy revealed no luminal narrowing or mass lesion. Hence, the appropriate treatment plan the intraoperative challenges, and geriatric outcomes were taken into consideration.

Keywords: Carcinoid, desmoid, sclerosing mesenteritis

How to cite this article: Rudraiah HGM, Kalke SV, Desai A. A rare case report of sclerosing mesenteritis presenting as a huge abdominal mass. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2018; 5: 170-172

Received: 22 August 2018;

Accepted: 8 September 2018