Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights

Vol. 2 | No.2 | March-April 2015 Issue

1.EDITORIAL

Translational research: Leading to constant transition for deeper medical insights

V. Ambarish

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:47 | No. of Hits: 1188


ABSTRACT

Translational research: Leading to constant transition for deeper medical insights

History has witnessed great periods of transition in medical sciences. These episodic periods of revolution not only changed the thinking of the rulers, scientists, and doctors, but of whole societies of the glorious civilizations of the past. This led to immense developments during such periods of history in all fields of science and the medical science in particular. Renaissance in Europe is one such phase that contributed enormously to the advances in the medical world.[1]

How to cite this article: Ambarish V. Translational research: Leading to constant transition for deeper medical insights. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:47.


2.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser × self-etching primer: Association with mineral trioxide aggregate as retrograde root filling

Karen Cristina Kazue Yui, Carolina Baptista Miranda, Fabiana Ballete de Cara Araujo, Maria Amélia Máximo Araújo, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Marcia Carneiro Valera

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:48–53 | No. of Hits: 284


ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of laser irradiation and self-etching primer on the microleakage of apicoectomized teeth retro filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

Materials and Methods: A total of 60 bovine teeth were endodontically treated and had the apical 3 mm resected. Root-end cavities were prepared and the specimens were divided into five groups: Group 1 - control group, teeth only retrofiled with MTA; Group 2 - specimens treated with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser on the inner walls of the root-end cavities; Group 3 - specimens treated as Group 2 added with Nd: YAG laser on the surface of the apical resection; Group 4 - teeth treated with self-etching primer on the inner walls of the root-end cavities, and Group 5 - teeth treated as Group 4 and in addition, treated with self-etching primer on the surface of the apical resection. All the specimens were retrofiled with MTA and sealed with varnish. The teeth were immersed in 2% rhodamine B dye for 24 h. After this period, roots were washed, dried and resected. Marginal microleakage at material/root surface interface was evaluated quantitatively through linear measure in mm with the aid of a steromicroscope and calculated by an image program.

Results: The mean values obtained were: Group 1 - 2.76 ± 0.60; Group 2 - 2.30 ± 0.84; Group 3 -2.21 ± 0.85; Group 4 - 1.04 ± 0.76, and Group 5 - 0.84 ± 0.40. ANOVA showed a significant difference among the groups (P < 0.05) and Tukey’s test revealed that Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were different from Group 4 and Group 5.

Conclusion: It was concluded that groups that used self-etching primer presented significantly lower degrees of marginal microleakage. Teeth treated with Nd: YAG laser presented same results as control group. The area of application did not reduce marginal leakage (for both laser and self-etching primer). Only MTA as a retro filling material was not sufficient to prevent marginal microleakage.

Keywords Apicoectomy, Lasers, Retrograde obturation

How to cite this article: Yui KC, Miranda CB, Araujo FB, Araújo MA, Torres CR, Valera MC. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser × self-etching primer: Association with mineral trioxide aggregate as retrograde root filling. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:48-53.

Received 15 September 2014;
Accepted 28 November 2014


3.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Morphologic and clinical changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery

Archana Louis, S. M. Kotrashetti, Indraniil Roy, Poornima Kadagad

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:54–61 | No. of Hits: 1819 [No. of Citation: 2]


ABSTRACT

Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) health is closely related to occlusion of an individual. The change in occlusion following orthognathic surgery is expected to cause changes in the TMJ.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the clinical, symptomatic and radiological changes in TMJ 1 year following orthognathic surgery.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, KLE’s VK Institute of Dental Sciences. Twenty patients were included. All patients were assessed at 1 year follow.up for any clinical changes in TMJ, orthopantamograph was taken to analyze condition of condyle and the patients filled a questionnaire regarding TMJ symptoms.

Results: Clinical examination of all 20 patients showed improvement in the TMJ functioning. Radiographic analysis shows there was remodeling of both condyles in all patients. Fifteen of the 20 patients perceived an improvement in their TMJ symptoms.

Conclusion: This study suggests that there is the overall improvement in the TMJ and is closely affected by the orthognathic surgery.

Keywords Condyle, Oral surgery, Orthognathic surgery, Temporomandibular joint

How to cite this article: Louis A, Kotrashetti SM, Roy I, Kadagad P. Morphologic and clinical changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:54.61.

Received 04 September 2014;
Accepted 02 November 2014


4.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Determination of medical conditions afflicting patients visiting dental clinics: A population-based survey study

Akshay Shetty, Tejavathi Nagaraj, H. N. Santosh, Navya Shetty

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:62–66 | No. of Hits: 713 [No. of Citation: 1]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The evaluation of medical history questionnaire in dental clinics is essential to formulate a proper treatment plan in medically complex patients. Besides, it is also a source of information for future correspondence. The percentage of people suffering from chronic medical illness has been steadily increasing. Thus, it is imperative that the dentist will encounter patients with chronic illness in routine practice. Pre-administered questionnaires are the most commonly used and reliable method of evaluating medical health of the visiting patient. The intent of the question pertaining to medical health must be modulated based on the dental treatment requirement. This study intends to evaluate such a similar questionnaire and derive percentages of chronic illness afflicting patients visiting the dental college in a span of 3 months.

Materials and Methods: A total of 725 patients were evaluated in the period of 3 months. The randomization of the sample was quantified by using a Tippets randomization table. A pre-tested questionnaire comprising of a list of medical ailments was used. A list of 16 ailments was included, and the answers were sought in monosyllables of yes or no. Besides, adverse habits were also evaluated as these are risk factors for the underlying systemic disease. The results were calculated by deriving simple percentage and then tabulated.

Results: A total of 725 subjects were evaluated. Majority of the respondents were in the older age group. The most common chronic illness afflicting the respondents was hypertension, followed by Diabetes.

Conclusion: Thorough evaluation of medical history is essential before beginning to start dental treatment. The analysis of the questionnaire in this study indicates toward the varied medical problems afflicting patients visiting the dental clinics. The dentist must be well conversant with the common diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in order to institute the correct treatment without affecting the general health of the patient.

Keywords Chronic illness, Dental clinics, Medical history, Pre-administered questionnaire

How to cite this article: Shetty A, Nagaraj T, Santosh HN, Shetty N. Determination of medical conditions afflicting patients visiting dental clinics: A population based survey study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:62-66.

Received 02 October 2014;
Accepted 15 December 2014


5.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The expression of cathepsin-D in odontogenic cysts and tumors: Immunohistochemistry study

Yogesh Lakkasetty, Narayan Venkatraman, Balasundarishreedhar, Shashidara, Leekymohanty, Shivakumar Madappa Shivamalappa

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:67–71 | No. of Hits: 590


ABSTRACT

Background: Cathepsin-D, a protease, which is an invasion promoter and plays a central role in solid tumors including oral cancer. Our aim of the study was to look for their expression pattern in epithelium and stroma of odontogenic cysts and tumors and correlate their aggressiveness to the staining intensity.

Materials and Methods: To elucidate the expression patterns of this marker, we examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 24 odontogenic cysts and 10 odonogenic tumors, which are received for histopathologic examination in the Department of Oral Pathology, The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru.

Results: The epithelium of granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) showed maximum staining with spillage of stained material in the connective tissue wall and at the separation of epithelium to capsule in OKC compared to other cysts and tumors.

Conclusions: Cathepsin-D could be one of the enzymes important in separation of epithelium and connective tissue in OKC which helps in recurrence and intense expression in GCA with spillage into stroma, compared to other odontogenic tumors may explain its aggressive behavior, recurrence, and metastatic potential. To further validate our findings, it is suggested to use more sample size and monoclonal antibody for cathepsin-D.

Keywords Cathepsin-D, Immunohistochemistry, Odontogenic cysts, Odontogenic tumors

How to cite this article: Yogesh L, Narayan V, Balasundarishreedhar, Shashidara, Leekymohanty, Shivamalappa SM. The expression of cathepsin-D in odontogenic cysts and tumors: Immunohistochemistry study. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:67-71.

Received 02 November 2014;
Accepted 24 December 2014


6.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Neurophysiological response to stress in younger individuals of the modern generation

Arun M. Kumar, Vasanthi Ananthakrishnan, Jaisri Goturu

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:72–77 | No. of Hits: 553 [No. of Citation: 1]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stress and its response among young adults in the modern generation are not evaluated fully. There is a need to understand the normal physiological changes in the individual in response to a stressor. Serum cortisol and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) are most commonly used to assess the quality and quantity of stress in an individual. STAI measures the quantum of stress the person perceives. Serum cortisol measures the neurophysiological response to the stressor. Relationship between STAI and serum cortisol is studied in order assess the stress pattern and its response in the individuals.

Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects in the age group of 18-24 were included in this study. STAI Questionnaire was administered. Serum cortisol assay was done. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the STAI score. The pattern of serum cortisol was studied in all the groups.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 21.5 ± 2.07 years with a range of 18-24 years. The mean values of body mass index were 21.85 ± 4.05 kg/m2, serum cortisol was 130.07 ± 64.38 ng/dl, and STAI scores were 46.81 ± 6.15, respectively. The mean difference in serum cortisol level between the groups was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.016). Negative correlation was seen between STAI scores and serum cortisol in the entire group (r = -0.235, P < 0.05) as well as all their groups.

Conclusion: Group 3 (STAI score >50) had increased stress, but mean serum cortisol level was least when compared with other two groups. This indicates that group individuals had experienced more stress, but physiological adaptations in response to stress was insufficient. This is also true in Group 2 who showed similar findings. There is a need for understanding the type of stressor and their intensity in stimulating the appropriate defense mechanism. Accordingly the stress coping techniques has to be inculcated in the young adults of present generation.

Keywords Stress coping, Serum cortisol, State trait anxiety inventory, Stress, Stress response

How to cite this article: Kumar AM, Ananthakrishnan V, Goturu J. Neurophysiological response to stress in younger individuals of modern generation. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:72-77.

Received 02 December 2014;
Accepted 15 January 2015


7.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Wrinkle-free tissue sections

Shashidara Raju, Sudheendra Udyavara Sridhara, Aparna H. Gopalkrishna, Vanishri C. Haragannavar, Reshma Mirshad, D. Latha

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:78–81 | No. of Hits: 752


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim was to compare the efficiency of routine method, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid solutions for removing wrinkles/folds from the tissue sections obtained.

Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six oral tissues, two uterus (cervix) tissues, and two skin tissues were employed. Dilute isopropyl alcohol solution was prepared by mixing one volume of isopropyl alcohol with 15 volumes of distilled water, 30 mM and 40 mM of acetic acid were also used and were employed as flotation media.

Results: In our study, sections lifted from the water baths, after floatation onto all three different media, yielded largely similar results. In the case of oral tissues, alcohol seemed to give marginally better results.

Conclusion: Dilute alcohol and acetic acid are the alternate floatation media used in this study, but the control group gave comparatively better results.

Keywords Acetic acid, Isopropyl alcohol, Tissue sections, Wrinkles/folds

How to cite this article: Raju S, Sridhara SU, Gopalkrishna AH, Haragannavar VC, Mirshad R, Latha D. Wrinkle free tissue sections. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:78-81.

Received 02 December 2014;
Accepted 28 January 2015


8.ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Knowledge, attitude and practice towards oral health care among parents of autism spectrum disorder children

Jyoti Magoo, Ashmitha K. Shetty, Prakash Chandra, Latha Anandkrishna, Punitha S. Kamath, Usha Iyengar

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:82–86 | No. of Hits: 2043 [No. of Citation: 12]


ABSTRACT

Background: Parents, usually, are the primary decision makers on matters affecting their child’s overall health including oral health. Owing to the lack of cooperation, co-occurring disorders and its financial burden on parents, oral health is often neglected in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards oral health care among parents of ASD children.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an Autistic school for children, in North Bengaluru. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed to 60 parents. Oral examination of the children was done to record gingival status using dichotomous scale and dentition status was recorded using decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft indices. Descriptive analysis was performed. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Version 19.0 (IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).

Results: About 76.9% of the parents had the knowledge that oral health affects the overall health of the child. 40.4% thought that they should consult a pediatric dentist when the child had dental problems. 71.2% parents felt the importance of maintaining primary teeth. However 61.5% did not want any treatment for decay in primary teeth. 82.7% parents brushed their child’s teeth once daily. 94.2% of the parents used conventional toothbrushes for their children. Attitudes and practice of parents seemed to be governed by financial restraints, and preconceived notions regarding co-operation of their child.

Conclusion: The knowledge towards oral health was noted to be inadequate among majority of the parents. Furthermore, parents whose knowledge was adequate had not incorporated healthy daily practices. Parents of ASD children need to be educated about consequences of oral health neglect and importance of regular check-ups. Education of parents, access to dental care and affordability of oral health care services for this special group are critical factors for achieving optimal oral health in these patients.

Keywords Autism spectrum disorder, Knowledge, Oral health practices, Parents

How to cite this article: Magoo J, Shetty AK, Chandra P, Anandakrishna L, Kamath PS, Iyengar U. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward oral health care among parents of autism spectrum disorder children. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:82-86.

Received 01 September2014;
Accepted 20 October 2014


9.CASE REPORT

Arteriovenous malformation within left masseter muscle with arterial feeders from branches of left external carotid artery and venous drainage into retromandibular vein: A rare case report

T. S. Mahesh Kumar, A. P. Indira, Maria Priscilla David

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:87–90 | No. of Hits: 376


ABSTRACT

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the head and neck region is one of the rare vascular anomalies. It is a lethal benign disease, which is persistent and progressive in nature. With the increase in interest and recent advances in the diagnosis, management, and molecular characterization of these lesions have improved the treatment strategies. Because of its wide variability in its presentation, difficulty in diagnosing, and managing such malformation is a challenging task. We report an unusual case of AVM within left masseter muscle with arterial feeders from branches of left external carotid artery and venous drainage into retromandibular vein. The present case was of importance to diagnose at an early stage where the condition was asymptomatic and its association with high morbidity and mortality rate. This paper reviews the importance of early diagnosis and the complications associated with AVM of the head and neck region.

Keywords Arteriovenous malformation, External carotid artery, Retromandibular vein

How to cite this article: Kumar TS, Indira AP, David MP. Arteriovenous malformation within left masseter muscle with arterial feeders from branches of left external carotid artery and venous drainage into retromandibular vein: A rare case report. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:87-90.

Received 11 October 2014;
Accepted 08 December 2014


10.REVIEW ARTICLE

Is the past perfect present tense future continuous for anatomic pathology?

Ramakantha Kasimsetty Chatura

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:91–93 | No. of Hits: 731


ABSTRACT

Changing trends in patient care defines and redefines the role of caregivers. The future needs to be addressed to make pathology more visible and more prospective for medical students. Role of pathologists in value added services will define future training programs.

Keywords Anatomic pathology, Pathologists, Specialists

How to cite this article: Chatura RK. Is the past perfect present tense future continuous for anatomic pathology? J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:91-93.

Received 01 October 2014;
Accepted 16 December 2014


11.REVIEW ARTICLE

Diversities in presurgical orthopedics: A review

S. Thabitha Rani, R.E. Rajendra, M. Manjula, N. Sreelakshmi, A. Rajesh

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:94–99 | No. of Hits: 605 [No. of Citation: 1]


ABSTRACT

In children with cleft lip and palate, it is essential to maintain harmony among several aspects of treatment such as growth, esthetics, function and psychosocial development since birth. Treatment of infants with cleft lip and palate has been associated with many marked advances in recent years. To obtain the best possible results, these can and should be incorporated into the cleft team treatment protocols. Deformities in cleft lip and palate exhibit diversities in severity and form, as the wider and complete clefts show significant nasolabial deformity. This article reviews the literature on background of early maxillary orthopedics, various appliances, which have been proposed to reduce the initial alveolar cleft defect and molding of the deformed nasal cartilages, benefits, long-term effects of the same.

Keywords Cleft lip and palate, Nasoalveolar molding, Presurgical orthopaedics

How to cite this article: Rani ST, Rajendra RE, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rajesh A. Diversities in presurgical orthopedics: A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:94-99.

Received 30 October 2014;
Accepted 06 December 2014


12.REVIEW ARTICLE

Assessment of maturity in orthodontics: A review

Sushma Dhiman, Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev K. Verma

Year:2015 | Month:March-April | Volume:2 | Number:2 | Pages No:100–103 | No. of Hits: 8021 [No. of Citation: 5]


ABSTRACT

Precise evaluation of maturational stage should be an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment. Different authors had reported different methods in an attempt to determine the best indicator of maturity. These include body height, body weight; sexual maturation; frontal sinus, chronological age, biological age or physiological age; hand-wrist maturity cervical vertebrae; dental eruption; dental calcification stages and biomarkers. Ever the method has its own advantages, disadvantages and over the other method. However, still researches are being done to explore best method to assess the maturity of an individual. This article reviews the methods of assessment of skeletal maturation.

Keywords Biomarkers, Cervical vertebral maturational index, Dental maturation, Hand-wrist radiographs, Skeletal maturation

How to cite this article: Dhiman S, Maheshwari S, Verma SK. Assessment of maturity in orthodontics: A review. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:100-103.

Received 05 November 2014;
Accepted 20 December 2014