Journal of Advanced Clinical and Research Insights

1.Original Article

Retrospective analysis of the clinical features of 530 cases of reactive lesions of oral cavity

Santosh Hunasgi, Anila Koneru, M. Vanishree, Vardendra Manvikar, Ashwini M. Patil, Hamsini Gottipati
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 2042]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.2]

ABSTRACT

Background: Most common localized reactive lesions of oral cavity are focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma (PG), irritational fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), fibro-epithelial hyperplasia/polyp, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Clinically, these reactive lesionsoften present diagnostic challenges because they mimic different groups of pathologic processes. The aim of this paper is to document the occurrence, distribution of clinical features of reactive lesions of oral cavity in 15 years of clinical practice in Raichur, Karnataka.

Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective archival review of 530 cases of focal reactive lesions of the oral cavity. The cases for inclusion in this study were PG, PGCG, POF, irritational fibroma, fibro-epithelial hyperplasia/polyp, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Clinical data of each patient such as age, gender, location, and treatment were retrieved from the records.

Results: Inflammatory gingival hyperplasia was the most prevalent lesion and followed by PG. The age ranged from 7 to 63 years, with a mean age of 40.5 years. 261 cases were males and 269 cases were females. Male to female ratio being 1:1. With the exception of PG and inflammatory gingival hyperplasia, all reactive lesions were more common in males. Gingiva with 470 cases was the most frequent site of reactive lesions, followed by buccal mucosa and palate.

Conclusion: Reported results on the age, gender, and location of the individual types of lesions are not consistent in diff erent studies. Some of the diff erences may be att ributed to the geographic or ethnic factors. Nevertheless, there is need for more epidemiological studies to establish a bett er and adequate program to educate general population. Inaddition an early diagnosis and elimination of such lesions may minimize possible dentoalveolar complications.

Keywords: Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, inflammatory gingival hyperplasia, irritational fibroma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, reactive lesions.

2.Original Article

Quantitative exfoliative cytology of squames obtained from iron defi ciency anemia and healthy individuals

M. Vanishree, Alka Kale, Seema Hallikerimath, Balaramsingh Thakur
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:10–13] [No. of Hits: 879]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.4]

ABSTRACT

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency of world affecting people of all ages and economic groups. Previous studies on the effects of iron deficiency anemia by exfoliative oral cytology have produced conflicting results but application of quantitative parameters such as nuclear diameter (ND) and cytoplasmic diameter (CD) and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) has shown to be significant in the diagnosis of oral lesions. The present study was undertaken to assess the morphometric changes in CD and ND of squames obtained from buccal mucosa of patients with iron deficiency anemia and also to assess the effect of serum ferritin levels on cellular morphometry.

Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of iron deficiency anemia and 30 cases of control group were selected for the study. The control group consisted of people without clinical symptoms of anemia, normal hematological and serum ferritin levels. Scrapings were taken from the buccal mucosa of the iron deficiency anemia patients and control groups and stained with Papanicolaoustain. ND and CD were measured using image analyzer.

Results: CD and ND values of the control group were found to be in the range of 65.32-75.39 μ and 8.10-9.40 μ respectively. CD values of iron deficiency were 55.05-64.12 μ with the mean CD value of 59.77 μ and ND values were 8.69-11.24 μ with mean ND values of 9.88 μ. On correlating the serum ferritin and red cell parameters with the CD and ND values of iron defi ciency anemia showed positive correlation

Conclusion: The decrease in cytoplasmic diameter and increase in ND in iron deficiency anemia and progressive decrease in CD with decrease in serum ferritin levels suggested that iron deficiency causes significant changes in oral exfoliative cells. Cytomorphometric analysis of smears is useful in detecting the changes in iron deficiency anemia.

Keywords: Cytomorphometry, iron deficiency anemia, quantitative exfoliative cytology, serum ferritin

3.Editorial

Dealing with gingival recession associated with non-carious cervical lesion

Mauro Pedrine Santamaria
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:] [No. of Hits: 1234]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.1]

ABSTRACT

Gingival recession is a very common problem and can affect 100% of the individuals older than 50 years. Almost 50% of these cases, gingival recession is associated with a noncarious cervical lesion and together, they form a combined lesion that requires multidisciplinary approach to properly deal with this condition.

4.Original Article

Chromatography paper: A novel approach to estimate the salivary fl ow

Shashidara Raju, Sudheendra Udyavara Sridhara, Aparna H. Gopalkrishna, Vanishri C. Haragannavar, Ketki Sali
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:7–9] [No. of Hits: 744]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.3]

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate a simple and safe method to estimate the salivary flow using chromatography paper.

Materials and Methods: A total of 30 volunteers participated in the study. The salivary flow rate was estimated using chromatography filter paper and compared with the salivary flow rate per minute. The assay consisted of 3 spots containing starch and potassium iodide per spot on filter paper. Based on the color reaction on the chromatography filter paper the salivary flow rate was estimated.

Results: Pearson’s correlation test showed highly significant negative correlation when the salivary flow rate and the number of colored dots were compared.

Conclusion: This method can be used as a chair side diagnostic aid in the estimation of salivary flow.

Keywords: Chromatography filter paper, diagnostic aid, salivary flow rate.

5.Original Article

Effect of sorbitol on salivary flow rate

Shashidara Raju, Sudheendra Udyavara Sridhara, Aparna H. Gopalkrishna, Vanishri C. Haragannavar, Roshini Vinod
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:14–17] [No. of Hits: 991]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.5]

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate if the increased salivary flow rates obtained on chewing gum artificially sweetened with sorbitol is due to mastication or the active constituent of the gum i.e, sorbitol.

Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 30 volunteers from Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. The materials used in the study were sorbitol sweetened gums (SSGs), liquid sorbitol (LS) 70% concentration I.P from the company Gayatri Bio Organics Limited, paraffin wax (PW), and graduated beaker for measuring the saliva. The study was conducted in the morning hours from 9 am to 10 am by collecting un-stimulated saliva (US) from the subjects and by asking each of the subject to consume all the 3 constituents after each of which saliva was collected and measured using a calibrated beaker.

Results: Pairwise comparison was done between US and saliva obtained after LS, SSGs, PW among the entire 30 subjects and also comparison between all the four groups using paired sample t-test. The pairwise comparison showed a significant difference between mean US and mean saliva obtained from SSGs and LS, but no significant difference was found between US and saliva obtained after chewing PW. The comparison between all four groups showed that there was no significant difference between LS and SSG P = 0.346, there was a significant difference between LS and PW P = 0.001 and also between SSG and paraffin P = 0.001.

Conclusion: Sorbitol the active ingredient of artificially sweetened gums seems to be responsible for the increase in salivation rather than the act of mastication.

Keywords: Hyposalivation, liquid sorbitol, salivary flow rate, sorbitol sweetened gum.

6.Case Report

Oral ulceration in rheumatoid arthritis: A case report

Kavitha Vittal, Sathasivasubramanian Sankara Pandian, C. V. Divyambika
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:18–20] [No. of Hits: 2986]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.6]

ABSTRACT

Various drugs have been implicated in producing adverse reactions. Over the past few years, newer drugs have been reported with oral presentations mimicking vesiculobullous lesions. These seemingly rare presentations have posed a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. This paper attempts to highlight one such commonly administered drug and also the diagnosis and management of its possible adverse eff ects that manifested in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Methotrexate, oral ulceration, rheumatoid arthritis.

7.Case Report

Focal osseous dysplasia with an unusual and rare clinical feature of numbness

Ishita Agarwal, Ranjani Shetty, G.P. Sujatha, L. Ashok
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:21–24] [No. of Hits: 664]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.7]

ABSTRACT

Focal osseous dysplasia (FocOD) is a non-neoplastic benign fibro-osseous lesion. Osseous dysplasias (OD) are commonly seen as incidental finding on adult dental radiographs. This entity occurs most commonly in females and is almost always asymptomatic and non-expanding. This case report presents a case of FocOD in the posterior mandible with an unusual clinical feature of numbness of right lower third of the face in a 45-year-old male patient, which was confirmed by histopathological report. Radiological, clinical, and histopathological characteristics of the FocOD and similar lesions are discussed.

Keywords: Fibro-osseous lesions, focal osseous dysplasia, numbness

8.Review Article

Golden proportion: A review

S.M. Laxmikanth, S.R. Raghavendra
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:25–29] [No. of Hits: 8551]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.8]

ABSTRACT

Golden proportion is a geometric proportion which is theorized to be the most esthetically pleasing to the eye. For appreciation of beauty, it has been suggested that the human mind functions at the limbic level in attraction to proportions which is in harmony with the golden section. Th is divine proportion is the ratio of 1:1.618. It aids the clinician in determining the area most out of harmony and balance and hence determines the best approach to achieve ?harmonic unity? in aesthetics, which in most instances leads to functional unity and efficiency.

Keywords: Aesthetics, golden proportion, golden section, phi.

9.Short Communication

Human herpes virus-8 in human immunodefi ciency virus/ acquired immunodefi ciency syndrome - associated oral Kaposi’s sarcoma

K. Badari Rao
[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:30–33] [No. of Hits: 337]
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  • [Abstract]
  • [DOI : 10.15713/ins.jcri.9]

ABSTRACT

Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8), now called Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), as a probable causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was putforth when it was first detected in KS specimens in 1994. Since then, many investigators have confirmed the association of HHV-8 and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) - associated KS. This study was done to review the original research aimed at assessing the presence of HHV-8 in HIV/AIDSassociated oral KS and other oral lesions.

Keywords: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, human herpes virus-8, human immunodeficiency virus, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma.